Environmental Justice in Water Quality: Sulaimani City as a Case Study


  • Chovin Ibrahim Hussein Department of City Planning, Technical College of Engineering, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani. Iraq.
  • Hoshyar Qadir Rasul Department of City Planning, Technical College of Engineering, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani. Iraq
  • Diary Ali Mohammed Amin Al Manmi 3Department of Geology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq.




Environmental justice, Water Management, Water quality, Socioeconomic


Environmental justice is one of the urban planning approaches in the postmodern era that concerns equal access to environmental benefits in water, air, and soil for all, regardless of race, color, nation, or income. Cities' spatial distribution of environmental quality is frequently influenced by socioeconomic factors, with environmental concerns being disproportionately more prevalent in low-income areas. This may result in disparities in health and access to resources that help enhance health and quality of life, such as safe drinking water. Therefore, despite the urgency of the issue, little to no attention is given to the investigation and assessment to the topic of water quality management services and how it is contributing to increased environmental inequity in Iraqi cities, including Sulaimani City. This study takes qualitative and quantitative approaches in order to assess the effects of the quality of distributed water on increasing environmental injustice among residents of Sulaimani City. It was done by surveying 100 neighborhood residents with a questionnaire, which was then analyzed with the SPSS program. Moreover, twenty samples of supplied water were tested from selected neighborhoods within different topography, socioeconomics, and locations inside 10 different branches of the water directorate that supplies them with water. However, all tested samples were suitable for drinking, but the hydrochemical analysis of water samples revealed that the water is somewhat yellow in color, odorless except for chlorine, tasteless, and characterized by a low value of total dissolved salts. Ultimately, the result of the survey demonstrated that there is a high level of environmental inequality that is brought on by poor management, socioeconomic decay in the neighborhoods of Sulaimani City, a lack of participation by the populace, and a failure of the policy to adequately account for the variety of needs and vulnerabilities faced by households.


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How to Cite

Ibrahim Hussein, C., Qadir Rasul, H. ., & Ali Mohammed Amin Al Manmi, D. . (2023). Environmental Justice in Water Quality: Sulaimani City as a Case Study. The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya, 7(2), 72-97. https://doi.org/10.25098/7.2.21



Articles Vol7 Issue2