The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2024-07-15T09:43:49+01:00 Dr.Tara Taha Osman [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">The Scientific Journal of Cihan University – Sulaimaniya (SJCUS) Is an open access journal that publishes double blind peer-reviewed research, the journal is bi-annual journal (June and December), SJCUS has been established in 2017 by Cihan University-Sulaimaniya.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Approved by Ministerial Decree No.9967 0f 18/7/2017AD, for the Ministry of Higher Education &amp; Scientific Research – Kurdistan Region- Iraq, with P-ISSN: 2520-5102 (Print), E-ISSN: 2520-7377 (Online) and DOI Prefix: 10.25098.SJCUS providing Long-term preservation services where the journal is currently archived by PKP PN.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This journal publishes scientific research in Kurdish, Arabic, and English languages that contain the original scientific research standards in any of administrative, economic, accounting, Linguistics, legal, computing, technological, engineering, and the related fields.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><br />SJCUS journal is a member of CrossRef and CrossRef services. All published papers are checked by iThenticate and assigned a DOI.</p> The concept of narcissism among Kurdish, Persian and Arab Poets 2024-07-08T19:32:06+01:00 admin admin [email protected] <p>In this research, we addressed narcissistic disease in its various dimensions, as well as the qualities and characteristics of this term according to the specificity of social psychology and individual psychology, in addition to showing the qualities and characteristics of the narcissistic person according to the different scientific classifications throughout history.</p> <p>We also addressed the convergence and differences between Kurdish, Arab and Persian narcissistic poets in order to reach acceptable, correct and studied results in their historical context, as well as the fundamental difference between the three literatures on how to use the word "i" in poetic texts between them according to the psychology standards.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Semantic unfamiliarization in Tal'at Tahir's poetry 2024-07-08T19:50:24+01:00 Farman Mohammed Amin Hassan [email protected] Mohammed Amin Abdullah [email protected] <p>Talat Tahir is one of the Contemporary poets of the Kurdish culture sphere. He has his style of poetry, He usually works on the objects that we experience daily in our life; Which are nonsensical in our daily life, and they don’t attract us, but he uses them and give sense to them, and also defamiliarizes them.</p> <p>He extracts the original meaning of the words, and makes new actuality of them, or gives new meaning to them, for instance by relating those words to love and romance, he makes think.</p> <p>In this research, works have been done on defamiliarization, by using formalist theories for instance Shklovsky. After that, the abstract defamiliarization of Talat Tahir’s texts has been explained.</p> <p>Therefore, we have come to a thinking that: Talat Tahir has used Abstract defamiliarization too often in his texts, especially metaphor. But the metaphors that he uses, are different from what we have used to read.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Difficulties of integrating Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan Region 2024-07-10T07:40:56+01:00 Faruq Abdul Mawlwd [email protected] <p>The issue of refugees and how to deal with it is one of the issues that concerns the world because it has a major impact on both the country from which the refugees fled and the country hosting the refugees and the great impact that this human movement leaves on all of the social, economic, political and cultural aspects of the host country. In our research, we shed light on The issue of Syrian refugees in the Kurdistan Region and the difficulties and problems they suffer hinder the process of their integration into the host society, especially since the conflict and war in Syria have continued for a long time, as an entire generation was born in the Kurdistan Region.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-07-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Guarantees ensuring the effectiveness of the Integrity Commission’s oversight 2024-07-08T20:05:38+01:00 AbuBakr Sdiq Omer [email protected] <p>The legal system of the Integrity Commission, at both the federal and Kurdistan regional levels, mirrors the criminal policy of the Iraqi state, designed to tackle financial corruption arising from embezzlement and aggression against public finances. The legislature has entrusted the Integrity Commission with two types of financial oversight. The first, preventive over sight, is designed to deter the individual responsible for submitting financial disclosures from acquiring unlawful financial gains during or after their governmental tenure. The second form, known as deterrent oversight, seeks to inhibit the embezzlement and attacks on public finances by employing the Commission's corruption detection mechanisms. Upon discovering such cases, the Commission is required to forward them to another authority, specifically the judiciary, for investigation and adjudication, commencing with the inquiry court, followed by the misdemeanor or criminal court, contingent on the situation. The researcher posits that the assurances capable of realizing the Commission's goals of fighting financial corruption and safeguarding the integrity of public office are twofold: firstly, the conversion of the Integrity Commission into a judicial entity in terms of structure and jurisdiction, and secondly, the strengthening of the constitutional state's foundations.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 LEGAL CHARACTERISATION OF THE ELECTRONIC MEDICAL CONSULTATION CONTRACT 2024-07-08T21:20:22+01:00 زبير مصطفى حسين [email protected] <p>This research deals with one of the important contemporary legal issues related to human physical care, which is the legal characterisation of the electronic medical consultation contract, which requires legal rules to regulate it, and in a way that provides legal protection for the consultant. Given the importance of medical advice and the need for it, especially at the present time, which is characterized by the presence and prevalence of different types of diseases. As a result, a contract formula has emerged through which the medical advisor on the one hand and the advisor on the other hand can both benefit from this advice. And, that is represented in the electronic medical consultation contract as one of the legal mechanisms to achieve this end. Equally this contract achieves the convergence of the interests of each of its parties, which traditional contracts may be unable to achieve.</p> <p>The emergence of this form of contracts requires setting legal rules for it, and facilitating the resolution of disputes raised in regards to such contracts; especially since the Iraqi legislator neither organize nor provide for this contract in a special legislative organization.</p> <p>The aim of this study is to determine the exact legal description of such contracts in order to develop legal rules that apply to it, and then secure the rights and obligations of the parties, especially the weak party in the contract who is the advisor. Further, such contracts are not included in the so-called contracts regulated in the civil law code, such as the agency contract, the contract for the sale of services, and the contract of work and contracting.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Manifestation of the independence of the Integrity Commission and its relationship with public institutions in the Kurdistan Region - iraq 2024-07-08T21:31:27+01:00 Dana Adul Karim Saeed [email protected] Salh Tofeq Hamarashid [email protected] <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>This research relates to the issue of the independence of the Integrity Commission and its relationship with the constitutional institutions in the region.This body is considered one of the modern oversight bodies in the Kurdistan Region that was created pursuant to the Kurdistan Region-Iraq Integrity Commission Law No. 3 of 2011. And It is one of the important topics worthy of study due to its scientific and practical importance. Its scientific importance represented in the absence of an independent academic study on the subject of our research in the Kurdistan Region ,which resulted in some individuals and even some members of the law and administration being ignorant of the importance of this system , as for its practical importance,It is represented in clarifying the role of the authority’s independence in its relationship with all state formations in the region to carry out its functions of preventing and combating corruption. In order to cover the research topic adequately, we followed the descriptive and analytical approach in presenting the topic, starting by talking about the principle of the independence of the Integrity Commission as a specialized oversight body, and its manifestations Then talk about the type and extent of the Integrity Commission’s relationship with the constitutional institutions in the region, as well as its relationship with the Federal Integrity Commission, going through an analysis of these basics in accordance with the constitutional and legal texts related to them In order to give a clear picture of it, with Identifying weaknesses and defects in the relevant legal texts and suggest appropriate treatment to correct it.We concluded this research by reaching a set of conclusions and presenting the most important recommendations with the aim of benefiting the concerned parties.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Judgments that may be appealed and their Effect on the Elements of the Judgment 2024-07-14T10:20:48+01:00 Hadi Mohammed Abdullah [email protected] Karmand Mahmmod Abdullah [email protected] <p>The person, whoever, is entitled for his dispute or action to be viewed or heard twice, once before a first instance court and once before a higher second instance court, ehich is the court of appeal. This is abasic principle within the judicial system _ when the lawsuit is filed to the prelimirary court and adjudicate its subject matter, setting the persons claime, whether by approving his claim or by reversing it.</p> <p>Then the dispute is once brought again before a court higher than the first instance court so as “the first” cam adjudicate the dispute for the second time. This court which is “ the court of appeal ” must hear or view the subject matter of the dispute once agaim. So as to make sure whether or not the first instace court had applied the law correctly, and here the court of appeal will approve it, or it made amistake, not correctly issuing the rulling, not giving the right to the person that isworthy to it. These later vests the court of appeal to reverse the rulling and issue the an alternative rulling.</p> <p>This is the double instance litigation, and it is considered as on of the necessary guarentes for the good judicial process and for achieving the equality.</p> <p>Within this research paper we dealt with wrlings that are appealleable in the eraqi pleading law and the other comparative laws (The Egyption law of Civil and commercial pleadings, The of civil procedures of the United Arab Emirates and the Civil procedures Law of France). Then we talk about the effect of the appeal on the elements of the rulling and on the litigants and on the new evidences and requests, and on the judicial itself.</p> <p>This research has been divided into two chapters. At the first one we deal with essence of the ruling that are possible to be appealed, This chapter is subdivided into two quests_ The first quest is devoted to the notian of appeal and the second quest is for the rules that could be appealed. At the second chapter we talk on the effect of appeal on the elements of the ruling. This is distributed on two quest. The first quest is on the effect of appeal on the litigants and their requests, while the second quest is for the effect of appeal on the evidences and the judicial ruling itself.The final part summary is for the findings and the recommendations we got.</p> 2024-07-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Role of Inspirational Leadership Traits in Improving Organizational Commitment 2024-07-08T21:49:38+01:00 Azad AbdulSamad Ismael [email protected] Zeravan Bashar Ahmed [email protected] Jwtyar Hasan Kochar [email protected] <p>This study aims to demonstrate the role of inspirational leadership traits in improving organizational commitment. To conduct the analytical side, a number of governmental institutions were chosen that affiliated to the independent administration of Zakho. From the surveyed institutions, the hypotheses were tested with a set of modern analytical and statistical methods available in the (SPSSV.26) program.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A questionnaire was relied on to collect field data, and the study reached several conclusions, the most important of which is the existence of a positive significant correlation between the independent variable represented by inspirational leadership and the dependent variable represented by organizational commitment. In addition to the presence of a significant effect of the traits of inspirational leadership on organizational commitment. In light of the conclusions, a number of proposals were formulated, the most important of which is the need to enhance and maintain the availability of good levels of inspirational leadership traits by the leaders in the sample surveyed and harnessed to enhance the ability to create a work climate that supports organizational commitment, as well as cultivating a culture of commitment to reduce absence and work turnover, and enhance employee loyalty towards their organizations.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Strategic Clarity and its Role in Achieving Strategic Consensus 2024-07-08T22:25:03+01:00 Wrya Najim Rashid [email protected] <p>The current research aims to study the role that strategic clarity plays through its dimensions represented by (clarity of goals, clarity of the employee’s role, clarity of the use of resources, clarity of activities and procedures, clarity of the organizational structure) in achieving strategic consensus. To achieve the research objectives, the descriptive analytical approach was relied upon by designing a questionnaire to collect data from (71) administrative leaders in Internet Companies in Sulaymaniyah Governorate. A set of statistical tools have been used to analyze the data through (SPSS V.28). The results found that there is a positive relationship between strategic clarity and strategic consensus, in addition to the presence of a significant effect of strategic clarity and its dimensions at the macro and micro levels in achieving strategic consensus. Finally, a set of conclusions were indicated that would help in presenting a number of recommendations, the most important on of which is the need for the strategy to be clearly characterized in Internet companies when they want to obtain consensus on this strategy.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Role of Diversity Management in Achieving Marketing Excellence 2024-07-14T07:52:08+01:00 Mahabat Nwri Abdullah [email protected] Gzng Jamil Sadiq [email protected] <p>The research seeks to know the role of the dimensions of diversity management and marketing differentiation in first-class hotels in the city of Erbil, from the point of view of the directors of departments and administrative units. To achieve the objectives of the research, a questionnaire was designed and then distributed to the research sample consisting of (22) twenty-two hotels; The first class, which originally represents his community, and thus the sample represents the entire community, and represents the respondents with managers of first-class hotels in the city of Erbil, where the researcher distributed (89) questionnaires to managers of first-class hotels in the city of Erbil. (85) Forms were returned and were valid for analysis That is: the response rate reached (95.5%),descriptive analytical method were applied and to measure the nature of the relationship and the influence of the two variables, a set of statistical analyzes and tests were relied on through the computer program (spss_v.24). Marketing differentiation at the macro and micro level One of the most important and necessary proposals that hotel management has worked on developing this sector through its attempts to have competent managers who have an academic background and who are compatible with the hotel sector, and it is necessary to use hotel management when providing services to its customers modern equipment and technologies to be in the best image<strong>. </strong></p> 2024-07-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A Historical Overview of the Evolution of Sustainable Development 2024-07-10T07:50:45+01:00 Saud ghali sabr [email protected] Hawzhen Khasrw Ahmed [email protected] <p>This study aims through its inductive and historical approach to highlight the perception of global development thought since the end of the Second World War to the latest innovations of economic thought until now or what is known as sustainable development, which means achieving economic development under social justice and environmental safety, sustainable development aims to achieve social justice and environmental safety. Achieving a balance between economic and social activities, as well as business within society to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs It is clear to us that sustainable development is in fact a comprehensive concept associated with the continuity of the economic, social, legal, institutional and environmental aspects of society as this study illustrates the extent of the attention of the international community to the issues of mutual effects between the environment and development For which many international declarations and conferences have been held, which have received unlimited attention to this subject, and despite this international interest in the issue of sustainable development, many developing countries are behind sustainable development and are still far away or not applied because of the obstacles such as, external Debt , poverty and administrative corruption.</p> 2024-07-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Effect of Spiritual Leadership in Reducing Job Laziness 2024-07-08T22:35:16+01:00 Jalal Abdullah Mohammed [email protected] <p>This research seeks to demonstrate the effect of spiritual leadership in reducing job laziness in the Technical College of Administration at Sulaimani Polytechnic University, by taking the opinions of a random sample of workers in the researched college from a research community consisting of (220) individuals and limiting the sample to (145) individuals. The questionnaire form was adopted as the main tool for collecting data from the sample, and the descriptive analytical method was used in the research. The data was collected, analyzed, and its hypotheses were tested using many statistical methods using the statistical program (Spss v.26).</p> <p>The study reached several results, the most important of which is the presence of a statistically significant inverse relationship between spiritual leadership and job laziness. The research also came out with several recommendations, the most important of which is the continuous urging by leaders in the technical College of Administration at Sulaymaniyah Polytechnic University on the importance of following the spiritual leadership style to create a suitable work environment. Through it, cases of functional inactivity in the investigated college can be reduced.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>spiritual leadership, job laziness, Technical College of Administration - Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region of Iraq.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Role of Human Resources Management in Implementing the Disciplinary System for Employees 2024-07-08T22:50:04+01:00 Kafah Hamid Sultan [email protected] Mahabat Nuri Abdulla [email protected] <p>The current search seeks to know the importance of human resources management and its role in the application of the disciplinary system, which is an in Arabic language Departments at the University of Salahaddin - Erbil - Kurdistan Region - Iraq. Its aim to determine the relationship and impact of human resources management, represented by its dimensions (training and development, performance evaluation, and participation in decision-making) in the disciplinary system for employees, represented by (functional violation, disciplinary punishment, and disciplinary procedures). The general framework of the study represents the problem of the study, which identified by raising several questions about the nature of the correlation and impact between the independent variable (human resource management) and the dependent variable (disciplinary system). In order to verify the validity of the hypotheses, they were all subjected to multiple tests, and the Research used a questionnaire as a means to obtain data. The study adopted the descriptive analytical approach, as the main and sub-variables were described, and relationships and influence were analyzed between the variables.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Where the Research population was represented colleges in Salahaddin Universi (College of Languages ​​/ College of Basic Education / College of Education, Shaqlawa Education, and Makhmour Education). It was distributed to the teaching staff (120) of the Arabic language professors, and (106) forms were valid for analysis. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and the Easy Fit program were used to analyze those data collected by the questionnaire. The search reached a set of main conclusions, including the results of the correlation analysis revealed the existence of positive moral relations at a high level between human resources management and the disciplinary system of employees at the macro and micro levels. This confirms the benefit of the researched colleges from identifying human resources management and its contribution to strengthening the disciplinary system. as well as the results of the study indicated that there is an impact for each dimension of human resource management (training and development, performance evaluation, and participation in decision-making) respectively, which contributed to this effect. Disciplining and directing this relationship towards administrative decisions in educational institutions, in a way that secures the advancement of its administrative and educational work.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Role of Visionary Leadership in Achieving Sustainable Marketing 2024-07-08T23:07:08+01:00 Ava Omer Fatah [email protected] Mohammed Mahmod Shahab [email protected] <p>The current research aims to clarify and determine the extent of the ability of visionary leadership (vision, empowerment, inspiration, and values) in achieving sustainable marketing in its dimensions (social, environmental, and economic) in mineral water bottling companies in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate, Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The research started from a problem expressed in a number of intellectual and practical questions, and the main question of the research is (Does visionary leadership have a role in achieving sustainable marketing?). The researchers used the descriptive analytical method in the current research. The research variables and their dimensions were described by workers in a sample of the surveyed companies, and then a hypothetical model was formulated through which the nature of the relationship reflects the connection and influence between the research variables and their dimensions, which resulted in a number of main and sub-hypotheses, all of which were subjected to a set of statistical analyzes and tests through my program (SPSS-26, AMOS-26). Mineral water bottling companies were chosen exclusively in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq as a research field. They numbered (7) different companies listed in the Ministry of Trade and Industry (Directorate of Industrial Development in Sulaymaniyah) and (General Directorate of Investment in Sulaymaniyah), and the researchers distributed the questionnaire form. Directly on all (210) workers, only (201) questionnaires were retrieved, but after scrutiny, (16) questionnaires that were not suitable for statistical analysis were excluded using the (Outliers) test, leaving only (185) questionnaires valid for analysis. The research reached a set of theoretical conclusions and other field conclusions by presenting and analyzing the results of the hypotheses, the most prominent of which is that (sustainable marketing can be achieved through visionary leadership). The research also found that there is a significant and positive correlation between visionary leadership and sustainable marketing, which means that the more the researched companies pay attention to visionary leadership is the more sustainable marketing is achieved, and based on the conclusions reached, a set of proposals were presented, the most important of which is (emphasis on the companies studied to pay more attention to visionary leadership because this leads to achieving sustainable marketing).</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Sensory Marketing and its Role in Building the Customer's Perceived Image 2024-07-15T08:47:47+01:00 Jamil Abdulkarim Maruf [email protected] Pshtiwan Mohammed Tahir [email protected] <p>The current study aimed to analyze the relationship and impact of sensory marketing with its dimensions (visual marketing, audio marketing, and olfactory marketing) in the perceived image of "Motivation, desire, perception”.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The research phase was determined by asking in general questions centered on the philosophical concepts of the research variables, the concept of the relationship and the effect between the variables. A diagram was designed expressing the main hypotheses; the questionnaire form was used as a means to obtain data that was distributed to beneficiaries in the searched private hospitals, its consistency (200). And valid consultations and the questionnaire for analysis (188) form. In order to validate the hypotheses with multiple vegetables while using the statistical program (SPSS. V.22). the research followed a descriptive analytical approach. The research reached several conclusions, the most important of which were the results of the correlation analysis revealed the existence of positive and high-level moral relationships between sensory marketing, perceived image at the macro and micro level, and this confirms that the researched hospitals benefit from identifying sensory marketing and their contribution to perceived image. In addition, there is a positive impact and moral levels of the variable of sensory marketing in the variable of perceived image. The research suggests the necessity of investing in the strong relationship between sensory marketing and perceived image and directing this relationship towards investment decisions in the hospital and reaching the competitive position.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-07-15T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Measuring the Direct and Indirect Impact of Public Expenditures on Economic Growth in Iraq During the Period (1990 – 2020) 2024-07-08T23:21:10+01:00 Supa Salam Rashid [email protected] Yonis Ali Ahmed [email protected] <p>Public expenditures are one of the financial tools that the government uses to influence economic activity to achieve the set goals such as stability and economic growth. The Iraqi economy is characterized by the public sector’s control over the majority of economic activities over the long years. He asks himself, did the rise in the volume of public expenditures lead to the revitalization of the economic sectors, and then the rise in the gross domestic product and the achievement of economic growth? Therefore, this research aims to measure and analyze the impact of public expenditures, both direct and indirect, on the gross domestic product during the period (1990-2020), and to achieve this goal, the descriptive approach and quantitative analysis were relied on using the ARDL model. The research concluded that there is a relationship between public expenditures and local economic activities, directly and indirectly, so that an increase in public expenditures by (1%) leads to an increase in the domestic product by (3.80%) and an increase in activity in the local economic sectors by (0.04 to 2.4%). 68%) according to the quality of activities and sectors, and the research suggested the need to work on raising the efficiency of public expenditures to achieve balanced growth between local economic activities on the one hand and GDP on the other hand and to achieve the required economic growth in Iraq.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The impact of the Repercussions of the Corona Pandemic on the Strategic Recovery 2024-07-08T23:34:31+01:00 Barzan Salih Asaad [email protected] Hiwa Mohammed Saeed [email protected] <p>The research aims to study the issue of the Corona pandemic and its impact on the strategic recovery. The researchers presented the literature related to these topics, and the research problem was identified by asking several questions that focused on the nature of the relationship and influence between the independent variable and the dependent variable. A hypothetical scheme was designed for the research, from which the main hypotheses and sub-hypotheses emerged. In order to verify these hypotheses, they were subjected to a set of statistical tests. The research followed the descriptive analytical approach, and the research sample was selected from a number of managers in a number of private hospitals in the city of Erbil, Where (103) questionnaires were distributed to the respondents, and (98) questionnaires were obtained, all of which are valid for analysis, and (SPSS V.26) program was used to study the supposed relationships in the research model and research. We reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which are: The results of the correlation analysis revealed that there are positive, high-level significant relationships between the Corona pandemic and the strategic recovery at the macro and partial levels, and this confirms the benefit of the surveyed hospitals in identifying the repercussions of the Corona pandemic and its contribution to the strategic recovery. As for the proposals reached by the research, the researchers suggested that the necessity of reviewing the effectiveness of the current supply chains and making the necessary improvements to qualify for future health crises<strong>.</strong></p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Strategic Renewal and its Role in Activating Aviation Services Marketing Practices 2024-07-08T23:45:52+01:00 Jamal Ahmad Hama Karim [email protected] Shadia Mohammed Saeed Darwesh [email protected] <p>This research aims to reveal the relationship and influence between strategic renewal as an independent variable through its dimensions (exploration, investment opportunities, entrepreneurship, leadership participation) and aviation services marketing as a dependent variable with its dimensions (service provider reputation, skills of salesmen, value of complementary services) in several aviation companies in Kurdistan Region- Iraq. To achieve the research objectives and answer its questions, the research followed the descriptive analytical approach, then it formulated a hypothetical model that reflects the nature of the correlation and effect relationships between the research variables and their dimensions, which resulted in a set of primary and sub-hypotheses, which in return were subjected to a set of statistical analyzes and tests represented in ( descriptive methods and inferential analytical methods) through ready-made programs represented by (AMOS-26, SPSS-26). The air transport sector in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq was chosen as a research field for the current research; the respondents in the study sample consisted of (company manager, delegated manager, department head, division official, employee) in (17) airlines for a population equal to (1400) individuals. The researchers distributed the questionnaire in a field manner as an intended sample of (350) questionnaires, and then (313) questionnaires were retrieved, and (10) of them were not valid for analysis; this means that the total number of questionnaires valid for analysis amounted to (303) forms. After analyzing the data, the researchers reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which is the existence of a direct correlation and positive effect between strategic renewal and services marketing in the aviation sector, leading to the recommendation of the airlines surveyed and others in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq to the need to pay attention to renewing its strategies as a strategic approach to activate the practices of its marketing services by adapting to the rapid environmental changes.</p> 2024-07-08T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Using the COBIT Framework and its Role in Strengthening the Internal Control System over Electronic Accounting Information Systems 2024-07-09T08:16:31+01:00 Vyan Sulaiman Hama Saeed [email protected] <p style="direction: rtl;">This research aimed to analyze the relationship and impact of the (COBIT) framework with its dimensions (planning and organization, ownership and implementation, support and delivery, monitoring and evaluation, evaluation, direction and control) in strengthening the internal control system in electronic accounting information systems by adhering to the methods of general control represented by each of (organizational control methods, devices control methods, delivery control methods, system documentation and development control methods) and adherence to the methods of control over applications, represented by (methods of control over system inputs, methods of controlling data processing, methods of controlling outputs). through the opinions of a sample of workers in a group From governmental and private banks in the city of Erbil, After reviewing a set of studies and literature, theoretical concepts were written, model building and hypotheses based on the dimensions of the (COBIT) framework and the internal control system on electronic accounting information systems. Based on the nature of the research and the objectives it seeks to achieve, the descriptive analytical approach has been relied upon. In order to collect data, a questionnaire was relied upon. (152) were distributed to (10) banks, while the respondents were (128) of employees. The hypotheses tested by a set of statistical methods using computer programs (Amos V. 24) and (SPSS V.24). The study reached a set of conclusions, including the results of the analysis revealed the existence of a positive significant correlation of correlation and impact between the two variables. The study recommended a set of suggestions, the most important of which is the need for the senior management of the banks to adopt the research sample on the COBIT framework as a modern management philosophy aimed at educating banking leaders and employees necessity of abandoning the traditional methods and systems of management in order to be able to reach continuous improvement in banking services.</p> 2024-07-09T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Role of Quality of Work life in Enhancing Marketing Citizenship 2024-07-12T23:06:58+01:00 Mahabat Nwri Abdullah [email protected] Majd Abas Majid [email protected] <p><strong>General framework: </strong>The research was used through its general framework to determine the problem of the research by asking several questions related with the nature of the relationship and the influence between the independent variable represented in the quality of work life and the dependent variable represented by the marketing citizenship. The validity of the hypotheses was all subjected to statistical analyzes and numerous tests using the Statistical Analysis Program (SPSS V.26). The arbitrators and statistical methods were used for the purpose of verifying the validity and reliability of the questionnaire، simple and multiple linear regression، as well as the correlation.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The current research aims to know the role of quality of work life in enhancing the of marketing citizenship، analytical research of the opinions of a sample of employees of airline companies in the city of Erbil. The dimensions of the independent variable included the quality of work life (wages and rewards، safe and healthy work environment، balance between personal life and work، participation in decision-making)، while the dimensions of marketing citizenship were represented (the economic dimension، the social dimension، the ethical dimension، the environmental dimension).</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;Research Methodology: </strong>The research used the descriptive approach for the purpose of describing the main variables، by using the analytical method to analyze the relationships and correlation between the study variables and their dimensions used in the research. While the number of individuals responding to the questionnaire was (98) individuals، and the number of valid forms for statistical analysis was (87) factors.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions and Suggestions</strong>: The research reached a set of conclusions، the most prominent of which is the existence of a significant and positive correlation between the quality of work life and marketing citizenship، according to the macro and micro levels، which indicates that the more airlines use the surveyed airlines for the quality of work life، the more this leads to Enhancing its method of applying citizenship marketing In addition to the presence of a positive impact of the quality of work life variable on marketing citizenship، according to the results of the statistical analysis according to the overall level، while the regression results revealed that there is an effect for each dimension of the quality of work life، respectively، in enhancing citizenship marketing. One of the most important suggestions reached by the research is the necessity of providing a fair reward system related to the individual performance of eployees in the airlines investigated.</p> 2024-07-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Land cover change and its causes in Goizha Mountain 2024-07-10T08:08:56+01:00 Avan Ali Muhamad [email protected] Hoshyar Qadir Rasul [email protected] <p>Iraq has recently been dealing with a variety of environmental problems, such as the destruction of the natural habitat, erosion and soil deterioration, and the threat of desertification; the key factor in these changes is the alteration of natural features throughout the development of urbanization with the globalization process. This study aims to investigate and comprehend the changes in land use and land cover change (LULCC) on Goizha Mountain, located in the northern part of Sulaimani city. The primary objective is to identify the reasons for these changes, the individuals responsible, In addition to their impact on the citie's identity. Also, significant environmental repercussions that might develop later. This study used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to achieve its objectives. Data collected through a spatial-temporal study from 2017 to 2021 and a questionnaire survey to gather citizens' opinions on the causes and those responsible for LULCCC on Goizha Mountain. The goal was to gather comprehensive and accurate information about the changes and identify the underlying factors. The results of the study show built-up areas significantly increases in the study area on recent years at the expense of natural vegetation, and the identity of Goizha Mountain during the years 2017 to 2021. The study's findings confirm that human encroaching causes have a greater impact on natural change in the study area than natural disaster causes. In order to develop the necessary policies and laws, the results of the research have an important impact on reducing and eliminating this phenomenon and protecting the natural remains of Goizha Mountain that still exist.</p> 2024-07-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Analytical study of children's playgrounds performance in the residential neighbourhood units (Sulamaniyah city as a case study) 2024-07-10T08:44:07+01:00 Nahedh Al-Qemaqchi [email protected] Dana Sdiq Sadiq [email protected] <p>Many countries around the world are concerned about children's playground performance, particularly governments, and organizations, because of its importance in the child's life and the formation of his future behaviour. Playgrounds in open green areas are desirable and significant public places in the urban fabric because not only do they provide a space for children's play and growth outside the home but they support a healthy environment and adults’ activities. Two international organizations are working on children's needs, the (UNICEF), and IPA, (International Association for the Child's Right to Play), and both organizations are responsible for supporting children all over the world with humanitarian and developmental aid including child rights for play. Experts in the field understand that the social skills that children learn in the playground are often skills that they use for the rest of their lives and carry with them into adulthood; additionally, independent studies show that playgrounds are one of the most important places outside their homes, because of those above benefits this paper attempted to assess and check the suitability of a children's playground performence in Sulaymaniyah city to occupy the children's activity; thus, the main objective is to evaluate and find solutions related to improving the performance of children's playgrounds through investigation using criteria (formed as a set of criteria which are from defferent sources mentioned it in the table (1)), developed it for that purpose, and applied the criteria on (10) neighborhood units in both government and investment sectors, it is clear that the children playground performance in the investment secotr is better than the govrment sector, the other objective of the paper is to present the effect of play and playgrounds on kids and attract the neighbourhood community to different activities.</p> 2024-07-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Investigating Interior Spaces in Primary Schools: A Case Study from Sulaimani City in Iraqi Kurdistan 2024-07-10T08:50:28+01:00 Abdullah Yousif Tayib [email protected] Didar Kamal hassan [email protected] <p>The interior design in the learning spaces especially in primary schools directly affects the behavior, mindset, and psychology of the students. Every element has it is own impact on creating a healthy interior space, from color, light, ventilation, acoustic, and materials, providing the sense of nearness to nature, and zoning (different zones, different activity), they all lead the student to feel more comfortable, active, and happy. The link between design and psychology is very important and mutual, the interior design of the classroom is somehow related to student learning performance, individuals' psychological states are influenced by their surroundings, with variations due to both physical and psychological differences, as well as personal experiences.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The research methodology is a questionnaire, graphic analysis, and checklist, participants were primary school teachers from three international schools in Sulaimani city. The results of the survey questionnaire graphical analysis and the checklist confirmed that three independent variables of interior design have a crucial effect on students' learning performance.</p> 2024-07-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Influence of Façade Finish Materials on Architectural Identity - Sulaymaniyah City as a Case Study 2024-07-10T08:56:23+01:00 Abdullah Yousif Tayib [email protected] Haidar Mohammed Amin Sabir [email protected] <p>Architects have the ability to make material selection decisions, on what basis these decisions are made and what is their effect on architectural identity is the topic of this research. Can we provide architects with framework of material knowledge that helps them to evaluate and compare materials? The research aims to find façade materials selection decisions effect architectural identity, through the study of material class selection decisions and the current state of architectural identity in Sulaymaniyah City. The research problem is the overlooked potential of materials, that can enhance the expression of architectural identity.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The research methodology is graphic analysis and checklist form for selected cases, a total of 21 cases, and collection of 129 architects' opinions through a questionnaire based on indicators from the theoretical framework, then finally a statistical analysis for the two methodologies using SPSS. The findings of the study indicate that Sulaymaniyah either lacks a distinct architectural identity or that it is significantly distorted. Moreover, certain material classes can enhance architectural identity, like brick and natural materials in the case of Sulaymaniyah city, on the other hand certain material can distort architectural identity, like glass in the case of Sulaymaniyah city. Overall, it can be said that façade finish material classes selection decisions play a significant role in shaping architecture identity.</p> 2024-07-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The effect of the Building shapes of the Assyrian architecture on the Islamic architecture in Iraq (Abbasside era) 2024-07-10T09:02:50+01:00 Abdullah Yousif Qadir Tayib [email protected] Rawand Abdullsameeh Fateh [email protected] <p>This research paper investigates the profound impact of Assyrian architectural shapes on the development of Islamic architecture in Iraq, with a specific focus on the Abbasside era. An merger of cultural, religious, and artistic elements occurred during the region's shift from Assyrian civilisation to Islamic control, leading to an architectural change that combined features of both traditions. This study examines primary sources, historical accounts, archaeological findings, and visual representations using an interdisciplinary approach that integrates architectural history, archaeology, and art history. This study reveals the integration and adaption of Assyrian building shapes into the Abbasside architectural vocabulary by looking at architectural typologies including palaces, mosques, and office structures. This study aims to develop a thorough understanding of the ways that architectural shapes from the Assyrian tradition were adopted, altered, and recreated within the Islamic environment through comparative analysis. This study offers insights into the cultural resiliency that marked the growth of Islamic architecture in Iraq throughout the Abbasid period and advances our understanding of how ancient civilizations interacted with the creative creation of architectural shapes. This study deepens our understanding of the complex historical narratives that have affected the physical environment of the area by recognizing the long-lasting influence of Assyrian building designs. The research begins with previous studies in Assyrian and Islamic architecture, especially Abbasid architecture and the most important Assyrian buildings (palaces and temples) in order to clarify the most important indicators of the formal characteristics in Assyrian architecture. On the casse study , the research is divided into two branches: The first section is the questionnaire form distributed to 15 university professors that Dedicated to the topic, the questionnaire consists of four questions according to the indicators. The second section is the graphic analysis of the Assyrian and Islamic examples in order to know the most important formal influences of Assyrian architecture on Islamic architecture (Abbasid architecture). One of the most important conclusions in the research is the use of the square shape in Islamic (Abbasid) architecture. The central courtyard used in Assyrian architecture is one of the most important symbols shared between the two architectures. The central courtyard is widely used in Islamic (Abbasid) architecture.</p> 2024-07-10T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Effect of Security on the Process of Urban Planning 2024-07-12T10:02:55+01:00 Rebaz ahmed Majid [email protected] Alan faraydoon Ali [email protected] <p>Security is one of the most critical factors that impacts urban spaces in cities. It contributes to meeting the needs of city dwellers by instilling a sense of calm inside the individual. The guidelines and standards of security serve as the foundation for urban development efforts. Security in any urban place requires careful planning and design. The study of security that is related to planning and design in urban spaces is uncommon and rare in the context of the Kurdistan Region and the rest of Iraq. The improper use of public spaces, low-quality urban spaces, and lack of guidelines and criteria can lead to a sense of insecurity and are among the main problems to which this study attempts to find solutions. This paper seeks to investigate and find the most important criteria associated with increasing the sense of security in urban spaces in the neighborhoods of Sulaimani city of Iraq. Hence, the concepts and parameters for assessing security rates and figuring out the factors that influence security levels would be taken into consideration after examining the theories, concepts, techniques, and international experiences. The study compares two neighborhoods (a traditional and a modern neighborhoods) in Sulaimani city in terms of security levels using security-related criteria. Data collection was performed through a questionnaire which 356 of its copies were distributed to experts and residents. The security assessment considers seven criteria, including diversity, access control, lighting, natural surveillance, territorial reinforcement, maintenance. According to the study's findings, security would be enhanced by activities such as providing adequate diversity, mixed-use, accessibility, sufficient lighting, enhancing natural surveillance, and territorial reinforcement. And the urban spaces will be promoted by boosting the quality of those spaces and managing them with proper maintenance. Moreover, the results show that the traditional neighborhood meets most of the criteria related to security.</p> 2024-07-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Learned-Indexes for Improving Query Performance A Comprehensive Survey with Taxonomy 2024-07-15T09:43:49+01:00 Chiya Qadir Hama Faraj [email protected] Nzar A. Ali [email protected] <p>Database performance optimization involves intertwining developmental efforts with challenges. Core to this field are index structures, notably the B+-Tree technique, which enhances database performance by mapping keys to their locations regardless of data distribution. Although the B+-Tree improves query performance, it has inherent limitations affecting overall efficiency. The rise in data volume intensifies indexing complexities. Machine Learning (ML) emerges as a potent approach to rejuvenate legacy Database Management System (DBMS) components. A notable innovation is the "Learning Indexes" paradigm, viewing indexes as predictive models anticipating key locations in datasets, akin to Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDF). This study serves as a survey, exploring technologies underpinning learned-index paradigms and comparing them with traditional database indexing techniques. Through meticulous analysis, it unravels intricacies of both traditional and learned indexing paradigms, equipping aspiring analysts with a panoramic understanding. This underscores the imperative of charting a path for future advancements within this transformative domain.</p> 2024-07-15T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Generalize A* Algorithms to Solve Travel Salesman Problem 2024-07-12T10:31:56+01:00 Maha Sabah Saeed [email protected] Shilan Abdullah Hassan [email protected] Manal Ali Atiyah [email protected] <p>Generalize A* is a search algorithm that has widely been used in the pathfinding research group. Its efficiency, simplicity, and modularity are often highlighted as its strengths compared to other algorithms. Dijkstra algorithm is another type of A* but without using of heuristic function. These algorithms were used previously to find the shortest path between two states (start and goal).</p> <p>Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP) is one of the most common combinatorial optimization problems. It comes in the categorization of NP-Hard problems. The solutions of TSP are not possible using traditional algorithms. It is having many application branches like mathematics, computer science, and engineering. TSP is designed to find the shortest path by visiting all instances of the problem.&nbsp; This study makes an adaptation to the A* algorithm to work on TSP with the heuristic function that tries to look for a better path which gives priority to nodes that are supposed to be better than others and Dijkstra’s algorithm just explores all possible ways and compare between the two algorithms for the same problem. The study result will help for future studies.</p> 2024-07-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Prevent the SQL Injection base on Session using the static ID of retrieving the URL 2024-07-13T11:58:44+01:00 Brzu T. Mohammed [email protected] Ardallan H. Awlla [email protected] Sherko H. Murad [email protected] Hawar H. Yaba [email protected] <p>Today, the rise in cyber threats has underscored the vulnerability of web applications, making website security a continuous challenge. Structured Query Language (SQL) injection attacks are among the top ten security vulnerabilities recognized by the Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP). Structured Query Language injection is still the most typical vulnerability and the most critical security threat due to the diversity of forms and dramatic changes that it could lead to, including financial losses, data leaks, and serious database corruption that could paralyze a site. One vulnerability in a web application is sending sensitive data through the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) query string. Therefore, the Uniform Resource Locator query string can be a trap for Structured Query Language injection attacks to steal user data. This paper proposes an solution based on a session using the static identifier of retrieving the Uniform Resource Locator to prevent Structured Query Language injection vulnerabilities.</p> 2024-07-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Examining Teachers' Understanding and Implementation of the English Curriculum: A Study in the Syrian Context 2024-07-12T13:34:14+01:00 Batoul Khoja [email protected] Aras Abdalkarim Amin [email protected] <p>This paper explores high school teachers' perceptions and implementation of the English curriculum, crucial for assessing its impact on students transitioning to university-level English majors. The study adopts the mixed-method approach, and data, collected through semi-structured interviews and checklists from 10 high school teachers in Latakia, Syria, revealed disparities between theoretical aspects of the curriculum, its organization, and teachers' understanding of it. Factors such as test pressures, overcrowded classrooms, and inadequate training contributed to these gaps, potentially affecting students' competence in English at the university level. To address these disparities, several key solutions are proposed. First, a comprehensive curriculum review is needed to align theory with classroom practices. Providing regular professional development workshops can enhance teachers' understanding and equip them with effective strategies. Also, mentorship programs and support systems along with revised assessment practices can address implementation challenges. Collaboration between high schools and universities offering English majors ensures smoother student transitions. Policy makers at regional or national levels can prioritize English education, supporting comprehensive reforms. These measures aim to bridge the gap between theory and practice, ultimately enhancing students' readiness for higher education in English.</p> 2024-07-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Exploring the Efficacy of English Songs in Enhancing English Pronunciation Skills among Charmo University’s English Department Students 2024-07-13T12:13:50+01:00 Areen Ahmed Muhammed [email protected] <p>Developing proficiency in pronunciation is crucial when acquiring a new language, as errors in pronunciation can lead to miscommunication and breakdowns in communication. The utilization of songs as an innovative approach for teaching pronunciation and enhancing the pronunciation skills of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners has gained momentum. Moreover, the present study was undertaken to ascertain the potential ramifications of integrating English songs into the subject for foreign learners at Charmo University, while concurrently assessing the viability and efficacy of employing songs for enhancing pronunciation in a university context. The research methodology encompassed a mixed-methods strategy, integrating both quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques. The study comprised 48 participants representing diverse semesters within the English department, in addition to two instructors. Data acquisition entailed the distribution of questionnaires to 44 students, supplemented by interviews conducted by the researcher with four distinct students. The outcomes of this study underscore the prevailing belief among the majority of students regarding the beneficial impact of employing songs for the improvement of their pronunciation abilities. Furthermore, several participants conveyed notable enhancements in their pronunciation attributed to consistent engagement with English songs. Consequently, the researcher recommends that instructors incorporate English songs into their pronunciation teaching practices, as it can yield significant benefits in improving learners’ pronunciation abilities.</p> 2024-07-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 A Pragmatic Study of Instructions on Covid-19 in English and Central Kurdish Media Outlets 2024-07-14T07:08:36+01:00 Jamal Anwar Taha [email protected] Dashne Talib Ahmed [email protected] <p>This prospective study was designed to investigate how media institutions, with a particular focus on Facebook, provided instructions to the public during Covid-19. The researcher adopted Wiegand's (2010) mixed methods game model. For this study, 50 English and 50 Central Kurdish health advices on Facebook were analyzed in a triangulation method since the study requires different methods to obtain more accurate results. Notably, the study tries to answer the following questions: firstly, what kinds of speech acts have been used to perform instruction on Facebook in English and Central Kurdish? Secondly, what rhetorical devices were used in English and Central Kurdish media outlets while raising awareness during Covid-19? Finally, to what extent tutorial health ministries’ announcements have persuaded people to take extra precautionary measures against Covid-19 in the Kurdistan regional government (KRG)? The results show that the vast majority used speech acts both in English and Central Kurdish media outlets are representative speech acts since instruction, according to the model utilized, is counted as a representative speech act. The findings revealed that the cooperation strategy was highly used in the English media; by contrast, the power strategy was significantly exploited in the Kurdish media.</p> 2024-07-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Politeness Scales: Cost-Benefit, Optionality, and Indirectness in English Interviews 2024-07-12T13:46:57+01:00 Rebin Nooraldeen Kaka Amin [email protected] Salah M. Salih [email protected] <p>The present study attempts to explicate the relations between three scales of politeness, namely: cost-benefit, optionality, and indirectness, along with the six politeness maxims: tact, generosity, approbation, modesty, agreement, and sympathy maxim that offered by Geoffrey Leech’s (1983) Politeness Principle (PP). Lack of a dedicated and specific study to demonstrate the cruciality of these pragmatic scales and reveal the evident relations between these scales and maxims is noted as a knowledge gap in the area of pragmatic research.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The present study attempts to answer some questions of direct relevance to the field, namely: Are there any relations between the pragmatic scales and politeness maxims? Which politeness scale is mostly used in English interviews? And is only one scale enough to realize the degree of politeness in English interviews? Based on the above questions, it is hypothesized that there is a complementary relationship between the pragmatic scales and politeness maxims. The Cost/ benefit scale is the most dominant scale used in English interviews in relation to other scales. The Indirectness scale is mostly employed by politicians in political interviews. In comparison with other two scales, optionality scale is less utilized in English interviews.</p> <p>To verify the hypotheses and analyse the selected data, a broad-based model is adopted to analyze five interviews from five different genres, using quantitative and qualitative methods.</p> <p>The study concludes that there is a complementary relationship between pragmatic scales and politeness maxims. Politeness maxims operate within the pragmatic scale. In addition, the cost-benefit scale is found to be a dominant and widely employed politeness scale in English interviews. Similarly, approbation and tact maxims are the most commonly used politeness maxims in English interviews in the current study; one pragmatic scale would not be enough to realize the degree of politeness in English interviews when more than one scale is employed in an utterance.</p> 2024-07-12T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Impact of the Kurdish University EFL Learners’ Personality Traits on their Willingness to Communicate 2024-07-14T07:20:17+01:00 Ibrahim Aziz Ahmed [email protected] Habib Soleimani [email protected] <p>The target of teaching English has already changed from structural to the ability for communicative language usage. Consequently, considering what could influence learners' inclinations to communicate in English is pivotal. This study aimed to characterize the personality types of Kurdish EFL university students, find any significant differences among their willingness to communicate (WTC), investigate any significant relationships between personality types and WTC, and explore the perceived levels of WTC among them. For this purpose, a binary survey-correlational approach was served to 213 participants. Pearson correlation, One-way ANOVA, and Linear Regression were run to analyze the data. The results indicated that the subjects were moderately willing to communicate in the target language, and more inclined to correspond with group talks and people they know. Furthermore, there are significant and positive correlations between personality traits and WTC. Moreover, the sample had a moderate level of WTC. Lastly, the findings will help researchers build on an increasing trend of learner diversity and will enable educators to employ the findings to match learning and teaching with individual differences.</p> 2024-07-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Evaluating the Content Validity of Summative Assessment by Basic School Teachers of English of English in Raparin Area 2024-07-13T12:29:49+01:00 Shirin Hussein Abdullah [email protected] Jamal Ali Omar [email protected] <p>The current research aims at evaluating the validity of summative assessment. English language final examinations’ content validity of the 8<sup>th</sup>-grade classes in Raparin Area's Basic Schools are examined and evaluated. The final exams' content validity is questionable and the exam sheets do not accurately measure what they are supposed to measure because of the content of the test. In other words, the content does not have proper, sufficient samples of the relevant language skill, knowledge, and structures of the syllabus. Hence, the content of 50 English language exam sheets of both semesters is compared with the content of 8<sup>th</sup>-grade syllabus (Sunrise Eight Students' Book). For analysing the collected data, comparative analytical method is used. The process of data analysis is carried out through three phases. First, the content validity of all the collected data is calculated. Then, significant differences between first semester and second semesters’ content validity are calculated. Next, testing techniques used in final exam sheets are analysed to show which testing technique could achieve content validity better. Based on the analysis, it is concluded that the exam sheets don’t have enough proper representative samples of the syllabus, the exam sheets don’t achieve high level content validity, and the average content validity in terms of assessing enough syllabus items is 72.19%. Consequently, it is found that there are great significance differences between both semesters with 0.000352. afterwards, the testing techniques used for testing vocabulary with the highest content validity is fill-in blanks, next do as required items, then multiple-choice items, and finally matching. The summative assessments have major flaws in terms of its content, second semester version, and testing techniques. In the light of the conclusions presented in the study, it is recommended that EFL teachers, educators, test designers, and stakeholders need to consider the measurement tools used in the summative assessment. They also need to provide in-service teachers with training courses relevant to designing valid and reliable tests.</p> 2024-07-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 An Empirical Study of the Impact of Rubrics on Writing Performance of Kurdish EFL Students 2024-07-14T06:57:42+01:00 Mohammed Imad Mohammed [email protected] Nabaz Nariman Mohammed [email protected] <p>The current study investigates the impact of rubrics on developing the writing performance of thirty-three Kurdish EFL university students (English Language Department - University of Halabja). In addition, it examines how rubrics are perceived by those students. This study adopted a quantitative research method, with a pre-test/post-test design and a survey after the post-test. In the pre-test each student wrote an essay without guidance, then a rubric was introduced which outlined essay writing criteria. In the post-test, using the provided rubric the students wrote another essay. In the analysis of the pre-test and post-test scores a significant improvement in writing performance was revealed after using the rubric. A post-writing survey explored students’ perceptions. Results indicated a positive view of rubrics, with students appreciating the clarity, fairness, and guidance they provided. However, some students expressed concerns about potential limitations on creativity and suitability for self-assessment. The study highlights the potential of rubrics to enhance writing performance and student perceptions of the evaluation process.</p> 2024-07-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Contrast as a Means of Expression in David Hare’s The Secret Rapture 2024-07-13T21:19:53+01:00 Omed Bapir Saber [email protected] Saffeen Numan Arif [email protected] <p>This article is to expose how David Hare’s drama evolves within the social and political contexts of the 1980s, in addition to showing the different trends the writer follows to deal with British contemporary politics. This is mainly done through the depiction of the characteristics of the Leftist Party only within the boundaries of the characters’ private lives as illustrated in <em>The Secret Rapture </em>(1988). By dwelling on the characters, Hare shows how families suffer from collapse, and people have abandoned such good characteristics as goodness, virtue, and decency in favor of greediness, selfishness, and ingratitude. <em>The Secret Rapture</em> deals with the playwright’s disillusionment of governmental policies and the moral decline characterizing this decade. In this article, the main approach is to analyze the main contrasting characters through what they say and do to reveal how their action and attitudes are shaped under the effect of the turbulent decade of the nineteen-eighties. The author thus seems to have intentionally created contrasting figures so as to comment on the evils that come out of following one own whims and selfish ends.</p> 2024-07-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Significant Factors Influencing Students’ Perceptions Towards University Teachers’ Evaluations Using a Generalized Linear Model 2024-07-14T09:30:14+01:00 Saya Jamal Aziz [email protected] Nozad Hussein Mahmood [email protected] Raz Mohammed Hama Salih [email protected] Fatma Othman Hama Rasool [email protected] <p>The study explores the various aspects that impact the opinions of university students regarding instructor evaluations, with a specific focus on feedback scores. The present study investigates the impact of multiple variables, including gender, age, and experience, and educational level, on feedback scores. Cihan University provided a quality assurance dataset, containing responses from a total of 27,641 students across various learning stages. We employed different statistical techniques, such as generalized linear models, one-way ANOVA, post-hoc multiple comparison methods, t-tests, and goodness-of-fit tests. The most important findings are that female students give lower feedback scores to teachers than male students, while students in the second stage of education are more satisfied with their teachers than those in the third stage, with first and fourth stage students having lower satisfaction levels, respectively; teachers with a master's degree in science receive lower feedback scores than Ph.D. holders; assistant lecturers receive higher feedback scores than professors; and middle-aged teachers are more likely to be satisfied with their students than younger or older teachers. Comprehending these factors is essential for presenting opportunities to develop pedagogy methods, enhancing student contentment, and elevating the quality of education</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-07-14T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Moderating Role of “Off-the- Job Embeddedness” in the relationship between “On-the-Job Embeddedness” And Procrastination at Work among Public University Employees: an analytical study. 2024-07-13T21:26:23+01:00 Bewar Ahmed Abdalla [email protected] Pirshing Salih Mohamad [email protected] <p>The purpose of this research is to investigate the moderating role of “off-the-job embeddedness” in the relationship between “on-the-job embeddedness” and procrastination at work. Based on a survey of 451 employees who work in administrative departments across14 public universities in the KRG.&nbsp; To evaluate the research model and test its hypotheses, a two-step structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was utilized after entering the study data into SPSS 25 for initial analysis. The measurement model, which aimed to measure the theoretical aspects of on-the-job embeddedness, procrastination at work, and off-the-job embeddedness, was estimated through the use of covariance-based SEM software, namely AMOS 25.The results of this paper revealed that on-the-job embeddedness is negatively related to procrastination among public university employees, and off-the-job embeddedness moderated the negative relationship between the variables. It is suggested that managers and HR professionals should consider procrastination among employees seriously and try to reduce it through encouraging employee (on-the-job, links, fit, and sacrifice). This can be achieved through encouraging a positive work environment, job security and stability, and work-life balance which makes employees less concerned about searching for another job outside their organization, and less distressed about family caring. This will result in employees to be less distracted by community factors and more engaged within their organization consequently less procrastination at work.</p> 2024-07-13T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2024