The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya <p style="text-align: justify;">The Scientific Journal of Cihan University – Sulaimaniya (SJCUS) Is an open access journal that publishes double blind peer-reviewed research, the journal is bi-annual journal (June and December), SJCUS has been established in 2017 by Cihan University-Sulaimaniya.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Approved by Ministerial Decree No.9967 0f 18/7/2017AD, for the Ministry of Higher Education &amp; Scientific Research – Kurdistan Region- Iraq, with P-ISSN: 2520-5102 (Print), E-ISSN: 2520-7377 (Online) and DOI Prefix: 10.25098.SJCUS providing Long-term preservation services where the journal is currently archived by PKP PN.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This journal publishes scientific research in Kurdish, Arabic, and English languages that contain the original scientific research standards in any of administrative, economic, accounting, Linguistics, legal, computing, technological, engineering, and the related fields.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><br />SJCUS journal is a member of CrossRef and CrossRef services. All published papers are checked by iThenticate and assigned a DOI.</p> An Academic Credited journal, Issued by Cihan- Sulaimaniya Private University en-US The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2520-5102 <p>SJCUS's open access articles are published under a <strong>Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license</strong>.</p> The Reflection of War and Occupation in The Novel (The Fall of Bora Qalla in The Old Story, Death of Maimun)'s Mardin Ibrahim <p>The novel is based on many different principles and genders, each of which has its own characteristics and is related to other genders.</p> <p>This research is an analysis description of both novels (The Citadel Pipe In a Kurdish Story and The Death of Monkeys) by Mardin Ibrahim, which reflects war and occupation on the side of the novelist messenger, who finds himself reflecting nature, animals, shonas, culture and Kurdish individuals.</p> Tahir Mohammed Ali Tania Abdulqadir Arif Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-04 2023-10-04 7 2 1 16 10.25098/7.2.1 Horizon of expectation of title in (necklace) by Sherko Bekas <p>This thesis converses about the horizon of expectations or in other words, horizon of waiting, as a concept in the aesthetics of reception theory and the title of a work of art, and the effects that puts on the horizon of expectations in the aesthetics of reception theory.</p> <p>The first part of the thesis is focusing on the theoretical concept of the horizon of expectation and the horizon change in the aesthetics of reception theory.</p> <p>The second par is the practical part, which focuses on the title of a book by Sherko Bekas under the title (Necklace) and the aspects of effects that this title puts on the reader’s horizon of expectations.</p> Saman Jalal Aziz Van Baxtyar Mohammed Rauf Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-04 2023-10-04 7 2 17 26 10.25098/7.2.2 Formal Justice, its Concept and Function <p>In writing this research, we have relied on an analytical approach to investigate the concept of apparent justice and its functions. After looking at and analyzing the articles of the applicable Iraqi Evidence Law, and after presenting and evaluating the jurisprudence opinions related to the subject of our research, we found that apparent justice means Make an effort to bring the judicial truth closer to the actual truth, but apparent justice does not mean the literal application of the law, but it requires the proper application of the law, by obliging the judge to investigate the facts, conduct a sophisticated interpretation of the law, and by facilitating routine in a way that protects the public interest. In addition, it requires applicants to comply with the provisions of law and the principle of good faith in presenting evidence. We therefore concluded that apparent justice is the commitment, as required by law, to the principles and legal rules established to establish the right, with the aim of revealing or accessing the truth. In order to maintain a balance between the necessity of stabilizing legal conditions and the requirements of apparent justice, we suggested that the formulation and codification of the evidence should be in a manner that takes into account the mental and logical constants on the one hand, and does not ignore the real developments on the other hand, that is, that the evidence is provided for example, but with controls that guarantee Not to compromise the right of the other antagonist.</p> Ismail Namiq Hussain Baxtyar Rahman Hamakarim Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-04 2023-10-04 7 2 27 50 10.25098/7.2.3 Unnatural Termination of the Eemployment Bond of a Public Employee <p>The public employee is considered an important means in the hands of the state through which he manages the administrative work in the state, so the task of the state is to take care of the public employee by organizing and monitoring the professional life of the public employee, at the beginning of his professional career that starts from the stage of his appointment until the end of his career in one of the ways stipulated There is no doubt that the relationship between the employee and the administration is not an eternal relationship, but rather a temporary relationship, and this relationship ends in the event that there are legal reasons for termination of service, and among these reasons there are unnatural or unusual reasons that lead to terminate the service of the public employee, and through this study we review those reasons, which are the loss of nationality and dismissal from the job for political reasons and cases of dismissal without the disciplinary method, and we dealt in this study the reasons that lead to the termination of service also through the analysis and comparison of the laws of some countries such as France and Egypt And Iraq, and we showed in this study the effects of terminating the service of a public employee, whether the effects were legal or material, We also showed the employee's right to appeal before the administrative court or the competent authority to appeal in accordance with the law in force to recover his right if the administration's decision was arbitrary or illegal according to unnatural reasons to terminate the functional bond between the public employee and the administration, Among the most important results and conclusions of the research is the existence of different reasons for the termination of the service of the public employee, whether the reasons are natural or unnatural, in the French and Egyptian laws, these reasons were specified by explicit legal texts, in contrast to the Iraqi law, and in light of the results and conclusions, we reached a set of recommendations, the most important of which We recommend that the Iraqi legislator specify the reasons that lead to the termination of the service of the public employee in the civil service law, so that the reasons are clear and explicit for the public employee.</p> Aran Nawzad Kakarash Sakar Amir Abdulkarim AL-Huazi Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-04 2023-10-04 7 2 51 75 10.25098/7.2.4 Measuring and Analyzing the Effects of Economic Growth on Unemployment Rates in Iraq for (2003-2019) <p>The main purpose of economic policies is not only to increase and expand production capacity, however, it also generally aims to provide and increase job opportunities through applying two related policies (ensure achieving sustainable economic growth and increasing the capacity of the national economy to absorb more employment). Unemployment is considered as one of the major economic and social problems that are considered as a threat to most of the economies in the world. From this point of view, this research tries to highlight the measurement and analysis of the impact of economic growth on unemployment rates in Iraq during the time span (2003-2019), to achieve the goal of the research, econometrics method has been used. Through applying time series Annual data.&nbsp; The results have showed the GDP at different levels has a one-way causal relationship with unemployment rates.&nbsp; This indicates the strong correlation between these two variables, furthermore, this result is consistent with the hypothesis of the research which states that the growth of GDP in Iraq has an impact on unemployment rates, a negative relationship between growth rates of GDP and unemployment rates has been achieved, that is the higher the growth rates (GDP) lead to Lower unemployment rates. The research suggests that the Iraqi government should direct oil revenues in favor of public and private investment focusing on development projects and public social services in order to reduce unemployment rates.</p> Ako Khidr Abdullah Kamaran Ahmed Hama Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-07 2023-10-07 7 2 76 92 10.25098/7.2.5 The Role of Electronic Accounting Information Systems in Supporting Strategic Decisions <p>The aim of this research is to introduce electronic accounting information systems, and to address their nature, importance and role in attributing strategic decisions in private hospitals in Sulaymaniyah Governorate. The research relied on the questionnaire form as a tool for the study, and was divided into two groups as the study sample, the first group included professionals in private hospitals; accounting managers, accountants and the administration director in Sulaymaniyah province, the second group are academics holding master's degree and PhD in accounting, auditing, finance and management majors in Sulaymaniyah province.</p> <p>8 private hospitals were selected, and 24 forms were distributed to the members of the research sample, of which 22 were returned from the total forms distributed to professionals. As for the academics, 76 forms were distributed to the sample members, of which 66 were returned out of the total forms distributed to academics. After returning the forms, it became apparent to the researcher that 5 forms are not valid for analysis, and that 83 forms are valid for analysis, and their percentage is 83% of the distributed forms.</p> <p>The results of the statistical analysis of the data and the survey of the opinions of the research community showed that there is a strong positive relationship and a statistically significant effect between the elements of electronic accounting information systems; input, operation and output and strategic decisions, with consideration to the inputs of electronic accounting information systems that the value of the correlation coefficient reached 0.844 and with regard to operating the accounting data, the value of the correlation coefficient reached 0.900, and with regard to the outputs of electronic accounting information systems, the value of the correlation coefficient reached 0.930, and this implies that there is a correlation between the outputs of electronic accounting information systems in support of strategic decisions.</p> Ghazi Abdulaziz Sulaiman AL-Bayati Abubakr Othman Mohamed Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-22 2023-10-22 7 2 93 112 10.25098/7.2.6 Financial Flexibility and Role in Raising the Level of Financial Performance: An Analytical Study of a Sample of Bbanks listed in the Iraqi Stock Exchange for the Period (2016-2020) <p>The current research dealt with one of the important topics in the field of financial and banking sciences, which is financial flexibility and its role in raising the level of financial performance of banks, as financial flexibility helps banks to adapt to various sudden circumstances and situations that the financial institution may be exposed to, with the possibility of exploiting those shocks for the benefit of the institution, and the study aimed to measure the correlation and impact of financial flexibility variables on financial performance and its indicators.</p> <p>&nbsp;Due to poor planning and management, obsolescence of banking services, turmoil in the environment, and stagnation of banking procedures, which resulted in a decline in the financial performance of banks, two main hypotheses were developed for test them, and the research population included the banks listed on the Iraq Stock Exchange (44) banks, while the sample included (30) banks for the period (2016-2020). The data were analyzed by a set of statistical tests using (SPSS V.26) and (Excel 2019) statistical software.</p> <p>&nbsp;The most important finding is that financial flexibility and its variables have a significant correlation and impact on financial performance and its indicators, and those profitability indicators are unstable, specifically the rate of return on assets and the rate of return on equity (up and down) for most banks in the research. We also conclude that the failure of banks to achieve profits compared to the total assets they own as well as the total equity is a result of inflexibility and mismanagement of those assets, which led to the failure to achieve good performance.</p> <p>The research also recommended a set of recommendations, perhaps the most important of which is the need for banking institutions (the research sample) to be interested in applying financial flexibility to raise financial performance indicators, especially profitability indicators, specifically the rate of return. On assets, and rate of return on equity as they are the most explanatory measurement of performance and how well banks are making profits.</p> Khanm Noori Kaka Hama AL-Attar Alaa Ezat Jalal Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-07 2023-10-07 7 2 113 133 10.25098/7.2.7 The Role of Forensic Accounting in Limiting Creative Accounting Practices <p>The study aims to clarify and identify the nature of Forensic accounting, its basic concepts, identify the practices of creative accounting and its forms, methods and motives for its use, as well as to identify the role of forensic accounting in limiting creative accounting practices. The questionnaire was used as a research tool, as it was distributed to a sample of academics and professionals in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, (384) forms were distributed and (340) were retrieved from that amount (321) forms valid for analysis through the statistical program (SPSS).the research reached a set of conclusions which indicated that there are a relationship between forensic accounting as an independent variable and the limitation of creative accounting practices as a dependent variable, from the conclusions fulfilling, that forensic accounting is a contemporary field in accounting and has a key role in protecting rights or restoring rights to different aspects in the event of violations economic and financial, also creative accounting It is a process of manipulating accounting numbers by taking advantage of opportunities to get rid of compliance with accounting rules, measurement alternatives and disclosure applications, which affects the credibility of the financial statements and is misleading for decision makers. The research recommended the necessity of having legislation that defines the duties of the forensic accountant in each of the courts and in the objection committees in the tax departments, and developing the work of the expert in line with the requirements of forensic accounting. And the need to use forensic accounting in order to prevent phenomena that are considered negative phenomena, such as creative accounting practices to prevent damage to the country's economic system.</p> Ghazi Abdulaziz Sulaiman AL-Bayati Faraidun Nzar Karim Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-07 2023-10-07 7 2 134 156 10.25098/7.2.8 Measuring Human Capital Using the Present Value Model of Discounted Future Earnings Lev and Schwartz Model <p>The research aims to measure the human capital in Asiacell Communications Company / Sulaymaniyah Governorate, which is a private joint stock company and is one of the largest telecommunications companies in Iraq, and the present value model for discounted future revenues that was proposed by (Lev and Schwartz, 1971) was chosen. To conduct the measurement process for human capital in the research sample, and to achieve the goal of the research, the company’s financial statements were used, as well as the list of salaries and wages for the year 2020, and the research reached the conclusion that there is a possibility for telecommunications companies to carry out the accounting measurement process for human capital using the model (present value for future discounted revenues), by classifying employees into categories in accordance with the company’s policy and management, and it was found that employees with a university degree represent the highest percentage of the rest of the certificates in the value of the company’s human capital, which requires the company to direct their attention to this category through Training and developing them, as they represent the most generating source of future benefits for the company, and the research recommended that financial statements and reports should contain the value of human capital. It leads to increasing the confidence and credibility of accounting information, thus meeting the various needs of users of this information and decision makers, as well as raising awareness of the importance of measuring human capital through organizing training courses and programs.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Falih AL Naeemi Falih AL Naeemi Sawen Qadir Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 157 175 10.25098/7.2.9 Entrepreneurial Orientation and its Impact on Achieving Sustainable Development <p>The study aims at exploring the possibility of applying advanced Entrepreneurial Orientations ideas for the purpose of enhancing the Concept of Sustainable Development by the leaders of faculties of management and economics in the four Public Sulaymaniyah Universities of Kurdistan Region-Iraq. However, study data were collected using a questionnaire sent to (60) participants, consisting of Deans, Deans’ assistants, Department Heads, Professors, and Assistant Professors. The purpose of the study was to ascertain the effect of a proportional increase in any of the four components of the Entrepreneurial Orientation Concepts, i.e. ‘opportunity initiatives, risk involved, opportunity seizing, and creativity levels’ on the Sustainable Development of universities.</p> <p>To conclude, study results have confirmed that there is a significant positive percentage increase in those four components of the Entrepreneurial Orientations on the Sustainable Development Concept. In other words, An increase of 1% in any of the four components of the Entrepreneurial Orientations would yield a reasonably moderate positive effect on the universities sustainable development; e.g. the yields ranged between (0.596%) and (0.779%). However, other important conclusions of this research are to improve and increase cross-university contribution relationships as well as with other teaching institutions including labor markets, and speeding up local society acceptance; with increase financial spendings and concentration upon promoting and spreading new ideas, initiatives, projects, and provide every possible support and encouragement to those creative and successful ideas, and mostly integrating Entrepreneurial Intention as a main subject in the universities curriculum.</p> wijdan Jasim Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-22 2023-10-22 7 2 176 199 10.25098/7.2.10 The Role of Market Knowledge inEenhancing Organizational Excellence <p><strong>General framework:</strong> The study pursued, through its general framework, defining the problem of the study by asking several questions centered on the nature of the relationship and the impact between the independent variable represented (market knowledge) and the dependent variable represented by (organizational excellence), where the hypothesis of the study was developed, which consists of seven main hypotheses and for the purpose of verification From the validity of the hypotheses, all of them were subjected to multiple choices and statistical analyzes through statistical programs as (SPSS V,23). Several statistical methods were used, including arbitrators and Cronbach's alpha to verify validity and reliability, simple and multiple correlation, and simple and multiple linear regression.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The current study aims to analyze the relationship and impact of the variable of market knowledge for managers in private hospitals, represented by its dimensions (customer knowledge, competitor knowledge, market research and development) in the dimensions of organizational excellence represented in (leadership excellence, human resources excellence, service excellence).</p> <p><strong>Study methodology:</strong> The study followed the descriptive approach represented in describing the main and sub-variables, as well as the analytical approach in analyzing the relationships and impact between the main variables and their dimensions adopted in the study, while the number of individuals who responded to fill out the questionnaire was (103) individuals, while the forms valid for analysis are (91) individuals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and Suggestions:</strong> The results of the correlation analysis showed that there are positive and high levels of positive correlation between market knowledge and organizational excellence at the macro and micro levels, and this confirms that the more the researched private hospitals use market knowledge, the more this leads to promoting organizational excellence. While the study suggested that the management of the surveyed private hospitals should pay attention to market analysis so as to enable them to supply better health services.</p> Pareshan Maruf Jamil Krekar Ahmed Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-07 2023-10-07 7 2 200 225 10.25098/7.2.11 Cleaner Production and its Role in Aachieving Strategic Ambidexterity <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research aims to demonstrate the extent to which it is possible to achieve strategic ambidexterity with its dimensions (exploration of opportunities, exploitation of opportunities, structural ambidexterity) in light of the application of cleaner production and its dimensions (replacement of raw materials, recycling, good housekeeping, change of production technology, product development, development of the production process), In a number of mineral water production plants in Sulaymaniyah Governorate - Iraq. The research started from the problem of factories’ lack of strategic ambidexterity in the highly competitive environment and change, as evidenced that a number of Those factories stop working, expressed by a number of questions, including does the application of cleaner production lead to achieving strategic ambidexterity in mineral water production companies in Sulaymaniyah Governorate? In order to achieve the objectives of the research and answer its questions, the research adopted the descriptive analytical approach, where the research variables and their dimensions were described by managers and heads of departments in a sample of the factories surveyed, and then a hypothetical model was formulated that reflects the nature of the relationship and influence between the research variables and its dimensions, which It resulted in a number of main and subsidiary hypotheses, all of which were subjected to a set of analyzes and statistical tests through ready-made programs represented by (AMOS-26, SPSS-26). The mineral water industries sector in Sulaymaniyah governorate was chosen as a field for research, and it represents the research sample (62) of managers and heads of departments in (7) different factories from a community equal to (75) individuals. Finally, the research reached a set of conclusions, perhaps the most important of which is the existence of a positive and direct correlation between cleaner production and strategic ambidexterity, which led to the recommendations of the surveyed factories to pay attention to the application of cleaner production as a strategic approach in order to achieve greater strategic ambidexterity.</p> Othman Kareem Mahmood Dana Hamid Abdullah Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-08 2023-10-08 7 2 226 251 10.25098/7.2.12 The Relationship Between the Quality of Work Life and Organizational Similarity and their Impact on Job Performance <p>The study aims to analysis the relationship of quality of work life concluded its five dimensions: (salary and bonuses, work environment conditions “health and safety”, job security, job growth and participation in management) to the organizational identification, and knowing the impact of this relationship in job performance.</p> <p>General Framework that adapted by the study is to identifying the study problem through raising several questions, that focused on the nature of the relationship, impact, and the contracts between the study's independent variables representing (quality of work life and organizational identification) and dependent variable (job performance), they subjected to several tests and a questionnaire form used to get the data.</p> <p>The study depended on descriptive analytical method, to describing dimensions of the study variables as well as the study society representing Charmo University Colleges in Chamchamal City, subsequently distributing (123) questionnaire form on the responders (faculty members), (102) valid form were obtained for analysis, and it had been examined the relationship, impact, and variance by applying the statistical methods through SPSS version 22.</p> <p>The research reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which are: There are correlations between independent variables and their impact on the dependent variable at the macro and micro level</p> Modhafar Hamad Ali Abas Omer Abdullah Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-08 2023-10-08 7 2 252 270 10.25098/7.2.13 The Role of Knowledge Management Processes in Building Smart Organizations <p>The current study aims to know the role of knowledge management in its dimensions (knowledge generation, knowledge retention, knowledge sharing, knowledge application) in smart organizations with its dimensions (understanding of the environment, continuous learning, desire for change, ingenuity, sustainability). As a field for applying the practical side of the study and selecting a number of employees in those directorates as the study sample. The problem of the study was identified by asking the main question, which is, does knowledge management have a role in smart organizations? In order to reach the answer, the study included a set of sub-questions to achieve the main and sub-objectives of the study. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Program (SPSS V-26) A questionnaire was prepared that includes (50) phrases, where an evaluation of the forms was conducted before distribution by a group of arbitrators, and they were distributed within the Directorates of Passports and Residence in Sulaymaniyah Governorate, and the number of distributed forms was (220). Form. (201) of them were retrieved, and (177) of them were valid for analysis, i.e. (80%) and after excluding (24) forms for their unsuitability for analysis. Continuously in order to build smart organizations by working to improve their services provided and the suggestions made by their employees.The study also reached a set of suggestions, the most important of which is, if the management of the surveyed directorates wants to improve smart organizations for the higher levels, they should review and acknowledge their administrative errors, especially those that contribute to impeding the application of their knowledge dimensions as well as errors that do not help in building smart organizations.</p> Shamal Sdiq Mustafa Jalal Abdullah Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-08 2023-10-08 7 2 271 296 10.25098/7.2.14 The Impact of Interactive Marketing on Achieving Strategic Ambidexterity <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This research aimed to determine the impact of interactive marketing for telecom companies, represented by its dimensions (trust, interaction, service quality, response to customer complaints) on the dimensions of strategic ingenuity represented by (strategy exploring opportunities, strategy exploiting opportunities, structural ingenuity).</p> <p><strong>General framework:</strong> The general framework of the study represents the problem of the study, which identified by raising several questions about the nature of the relationship, the impact, and the variance between the independent variable (interactive marketing) and the dependent variable (strategic ingenuity). All hypotheses were subjected to multiple tests, and the study used a questionnaire as a means to obtain data.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Study Methodology:</strong> The study followed the descriptive analytical approach, where the main and sub-variables were described, as well as to analyze the impact between the variables. The study population represented the telecommunications companies in the province of Erbil, which numbered (4) companies. As for the responding individuals, their number reached (91) cadres of the sales department and for the services of the study sample. Hypotheses were tested by applying statistical methods using the computer program (SPSS V.22).</p> <p><strong>The value of the study:</strong> The study reached a set of main conclusions, including the results of the correlation analysis revealed the existence of positive and high-level moral relationships between interactive marketing and strategic ingenuity at the macro and micro levels, and this confirms the benefit of the researched organizations from identifying interactive marketing and its contribution to strategic ingenuity. In addition, there is a positive and significant effect of the interactive marketing variable on the strategic ingenuity variable, according to what was revealed by the analysis indicators at the overall level, as well as the regression results indicated the presence of an effect for each of the dimensions of interactive marketing (trust, interaction, service quality, response to customer complaints) respectively contributed to this effect.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions and Suggestions:</strong> The research reached a set of conclusions, the most prominent of which is the existence of a significant and positive correlation between and at a good level between interactive marketing and strategic ingenuity according to the macro and micro levels, which indicates that the greater the use of the surveyed communication companies, the more interactive marketing this leads to enhancing their method of applying Strategic ingenuity. In addition to the presence of a positive effect of the interactive marketing variable on strategic ingenuity, according to the results of the statistical analysis according to the total level, while the regression results revealed that there is an effect for each dimension of interactive marketing, respectively, in achieving strategic ingenuity.</p> Hazha Khatab Mohammed Mariwan Kharib Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 7 2 297 319 10.25098/7.2.15 An Attempt to Visualize the Iraqi Kuznets Environmental Curve 1990-2020: Do Energy Consumption and Globalization Matter? <p>The increase in economic activity at the global level has led to a significant rise in greenhouse gas emissions, hence a trade-off between the two existed. The argument about the economic growth and emissions an active area.&nbsp; Iraq is one of the most prominent sufferings from the repercussions of climate change at the global level.&nbsp; This paper examines the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and economic activity, represented by per capita income, and ultimately visualize&nbsp;&nbsp; the possible nature of this relationship in light of the Kuznets environmental hypothesis. The period covered range from 1990 to 2020. The paper also attempts to investigate the effects of globalization and energy consumption on environmental degradation. ARDL approach is adopted as the main tool for estimation in the light of Kuznets environmental hypothesis. As for robustness check of the results obtained from the ARDL model was performed using three modern methods adopted, these methods are FMOLS, DOLS, and CCR. The main finding are: the validity of an N curve environmental curve, Globalization can assist in the reduction of environment degradation.&nbsp; Electricity consumption is the main contributor to the CO2 emission.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hatem Hatef Abdulkadhim Altaee Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 7 2 320 337 10.25098/7.2.16 The Role of Organizational on improving Quality of Educational Services <p>This study aims to identify the role of organizational flexibility as an independent variable through its dimensions (structural flexibility, operational flexibility, strategic flexibility) in improving the quality of educational service as a dependent variable with its dimensions represented by (quality of curricula, quality of faculty members, student quality, quality of Scientific research), the technical colleges at Suleimani polytechnic University, represented by six colleges, were chosen as a field to apply the practical aspect of the study, and the study problem was identified by asking the main question, which is what is the role of organizational flexibility in improving the quality of educational service? In order to reach the answer, the study included a set of sub-questions to achieve the objectives of the study. Statistical for Social Sciences (SPSS-V.21) A questionnaire form has been prepared that includes (35) phrases. An evaluation of the form was conducted before distributing the questionnaire by a group of arbitrators, and it was distributed within six colleges, and the number of distributed forms was (220) forms were completed. (197) of them were retrieved, and (185) were valid for analysis, and (21) were excluded because they were not fit for analysis. The study reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which is the existence of a correlation and impact relationship between organizational flexibility and the quality of the educational service, with the variation of this relationship at the level of sub-dimensions in the light of the answers of the respondents, which confirms the importance of organizational flexibility in improving the quality of educational service. Based on the conclusions reached by the research, a set of proposals were presented, the most important of which is the necessity of applying the quality of educational service in the researched faculties and adapting its dimensions to their reality and paying attention to curricula and academic courses because they are means for developing basic skills and diversifying educational services to meet diverse needs and develop skills Faculty members to improve their contribution to providing these services in addition to directing the teaching staff towards new research areas.</p> kadhim Faraj Arif Saed Hozan Adib Kareem Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2024-03-31 2024-03-31 7 2 321 343 10.25098/7.2.41 The First Report on the Prevalence of Nosema spp. Disease in Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Sulaymaniyah City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. <p>The microsporidian parasite <em>Nosema ceranae</em> and <em>Nosema apis</em> are a global problem in honeybee <em>Apis mellifera </em>L. populations and it is known to cause winter mortality. The current study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of <em>Nosema</em> disease and their geographical distribution in Sulaymaniyah governorate. For this purpose, between April and June, a total of 34 samples have been collected from different apiaries of city center, 18 surrounded localities, and districts of Sulaymaniyah governorate. Light microscopic examination was used to identify <em>Nosema</em> spp. spores in both asymptomatic and symptomatic worker bees. Nosema Spore load also measured using hematocytometer method.</p> <p>Results of microscopical examination exhibited the presence of <em>Nosema</em> spp. spores in 91% (31/34) samples collected from geographically varied regions. Apiary from Shorsh region has been detected as a negative sample for Nosema disease, which is situated 67 Km south of the city. Moreover, microscopic enumeration of spore load was revealed that the city center and suburb regions with the maximum spore loads (Log<sub>10</sub> 7.46±0.09 and 7.10±0.11 / ml, respectively), followed by other localities and district regions ranging (Log<sub>10</sub> 6.82±0.09 - 6.00±0.05 / ml). However, the lowest spore load concentration has been detected in both Zrguez and Sangaw regions with (Log<sub>10</sub> 5.63±0.13 and 5.55±0.13 / ml, respectively).</p> <p>This finding for the first time suggests that <em>Nosema</em> spp. is dominant in post-winter <em>Apis mellifera</em> worker bees and it can be considered as a real threat of reducing bee colonies and production of honey in Sulaymaniyah governorate. Further molecular studies should be achieved to determine the most prevalence species in the city and to control nosemosis in honeybee populations.</p> <p><em> </em></p> Rozgar Abdullah Rasool Rukhosh Jawhar Rashed Hastyar Hama Rashid Najmuldeen Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 7 2 1 12 10.25098/7.2.17 Using Augmented Reality and Geographic Information System to Improve Building Site Selection <p>When designing, or developing any city, whatever its size, the biggest problem facing the architect is choosing the best location for public facilities within the urban fabric. To this day, no scientific computational method has been established to be used to find the best site from an architectural perspective for a public service buildings that takes advantage of new digital technologies.</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to formulate a methodology that takes advantage of new digital technologies and standardizes a set of specific measurable metrics in form of 3D matrix.</p> <p>This can be achieved by formulating a criteria for measuring the necessary factors required to distinguish between a set of candidate sites and find best suitable location for the construction of a specific building, based on Augmented Reality (AR) technology and benefiting from the data provided by the Geographic Information System (GIS) &nbsp;and trying to answer important questions: Are Augmented Reality (AR) technology an appropriate methodology to correctly find suitable location for newly constructed buildings? Will it really enhance the architect's experience and improve his performance? It appears that the use of digital technology in any applied field improves the accuracy and task completion time of the result, is this also true for the problem under discussion?</p> <p>Accordingly, setting up clear and unified standard measuring criteria agreed upon all architect and urban planners as these measures will have tangible values, , thus enriching the experience of both the client and the architect.</p> Alaa Humam Khairy Nahidh Taha Abdullah Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 7 2 13 26 10.25098/7.2.18 The Influence of Zaha Hadid’s Roots and Heritage on her Architectural Approach <p>In addition to her books, essays, interviews, and studies, Ms. Zaha Hadid was a remarkable architect known for her deconstructivism style, which has been called inventive, flamboyant, radical, and revolutionary. She thought that an architect is far more than just a Renaissance master.</p> <p>Zaha emphasized the significance of using architecture to infuse cultural values into society. She was the most qualified architect to be sent on that mission if that is how it should be. Her famous interpretation “It's not about being nationalistic or patriotic; I cannot erase back the years I spent in Iraq. And I really enjoy the nation” evoked the central concept for this study. Does her architectural approach reflect her background? The research begins with a list of the pertinent aspects and characteristics of Islamic architecture, followed by a philosophical analysis of Zaha’s four proposed designs, two of which are intended to be built in Europe and the others in the Middle East, despite the fact that two enrollment were not chosen as a winner.</p> <p>The conflict between her style's Eastern and Western inspirations has never been clearly established. By examining some of her designs in the Middle East and contrasting them with the components, and characteristics of Islamic architecture, in order to answer the question posed earlier.</p> Tara Azad Rauof Azad Rauof Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 7 2 27 50 10.25098/7.2.19 Assessing the Planning and Design of Sulaimani City Entrances An Evaluative Approach <p>The entrances to the city play a crucial role in captivating visitors as they arrive in each urban area. These entry points are anticipated to symbolize the city's physical, cultural, social, and historical traits, serving as sources of inspiration for those who enter. They serve as the initial point of contact, setting the tone for the urban experience that follows. A well-designed city entrance should not only be aesthetically pleasing but also functional, safe, and reflective of the city's unique identity. The entrance serves as a window to the perception of the city's landscape and is an element that requires semantic consideration in terms of perception. The purpose of this study is to grab the attention and examine the importance of city entrances that have been neglected. While the first image of the city taking by the residents and visitors is through the city entrance. Therefore; paying attention and redevelop entrances of the cities reflect a right and a pleasant image about the cities. In addition; enhancing various historical, natural, environmental, cultural and economic prices of the city. This study conducting Sulaymani city in Iraq as a case study employed a mix-method in analyzing present and future scenario of city entrances in term of several variation (entrance as a symbol of a city, entrance as a mental boundary of a city and entrance as a window to look at a city). The finding of the study shows that the city of Sulaimani main entrances fail to showcase the city's unique identity and cultural heritage. This deficiency holds considerable implications for both inhabitants and those who visit the city. Furthermore, the study revealed significant deficiencies across various domains, encompassing planning and design strategies, infrastructure and transportation facilities, land use and zoning patterns, as well as cultural and social considerations. Finally, a notable issue lies in the absence of clearly defined entrances and their actual responsibility in establishing a distinct boundary between the exterior and interior of the city.</p> Sivan Hisham Taher Al Jarah Rebaz Jalil Abdulla Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 7 2 51 71 10.25098/7.2.20 Environmental Justice in Water Quality: Sulaimani City as a Case Study <p>Environmental justice is one of the urban planning approaches in the postmodern era that concerns equal access to environmental benefits in water, air, and soil for all, regardless of race, color, nation, or income. Cities' spatial distribution of environmental quality is frequently influenced by socioeconomic factors, with environmental concerns being disproportionately more prevalent in low-income areas. This may result in disparities in health and access to resources that help enhance health and quality of life, such as safe drinking water. Therefore, despite the urgency of the issue, little to no attention is given to the investigation and assessment to the topic of water quality management services and how it is contributing to increased environmental inequity in Iraqi cities, including Sulaimani City. This study takes qualitative and quantitative approaches in order to assess the effects of the quality of distributed water on increasing environmental injustice among residents of Sulaimani City. It was done by surveying 100 neighborhood residents with a questionnaire, which was then analyzed with the SPSS program. Moreover, twenty samples of supplied water were tested from selected neighborhoods within different topography, socioeconomics, and locations inside 10 different branches of the water directorate that supplies them with water. However, all tested samples were suitable for drinking, but the hydrochemical analysis of water samples revealed that the water is somewhat yellow in color, odorless except for chlorine, tasteless, and characterized by a low value of total dissolved salts. Ultimately, the result of the survey demonstrated that there is a high level of environmental inequality that is brought on by poor management, socioeconomic decay in the neighborhoods of Sulaimani City, a lack of participation by the populace, and a failure of the policy to adequately account for the variety of needs and vulnerabilities faced by households.</p> Chovin Ibrahim Hussein Hoshyar Qadir Rasul Diary Ali Mohammed Amin Al Manmi Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 7 2 72 97 10.25098/7.2.21 The Effect of Flipped Model on Enhancing EFL Learners’ Speaking Performance and Motivation <p>The flipped classroom model (FCM) is regarded as one of the most significant educational debates that emerged recently. Despite its far-reaching impacts on the educational paradigm, few empirical investigations have been carried out concerning if the implementation of FCM can genuinely improve EFL learners’ speaking ability. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which the flipped model improves students’ speaking proficiency. A quasi-experimental design was utilised with the application of the quantitative method. Two groups of non-English major university freshmen participated in the study; the experimental group (n=24), and the control group (n=23). The study included pretest and posttest on speaking, a speaking rubric, and a questionnaire of motivation at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The results showed that the experimental group performed remarkably higher than the control group in the posttest, they also had notably more positive outcomes in the post-motivation questionnaire. The findings of this study can be used in future works on EFL speaking skills development.</p> Habib Soleimani Daban Bahman Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 7 2 98 110 10.25098/7.2.22 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLASS PRESERVING NOMINALIZER SUFFIXES IN NOMINALIZATION PROCESS WITH REFERENCE TO ENGLISH AND CENTRAL KURDISH <p>The current paper copes with class maintaining nominalizer suffixes in English and central Kurdish languages. The process by which complex nouns can be derived from other nouns. In this study, a comparative morphological approach is adopted.&nbsp; Furthermore, generally it encompasses the background knowledge about nouns, types of nouns and the notion of nominalization as well. This work aims at appraising the importance of nominalizers in noun formation as a derivational Process. Likewise, this research strives to expose the points that both languages share and the points that they are distinct concerning the notion of nominalizer suffixes and stipulates their origins too. Moreover, it intends at determining types of derived nouns that they produce and the meanings that they tolerate. To accomplish the objectives, this probe logically hypothesizes that nominalizer suffixes are dominant, productive and significant phenomenon in extending the vocabulary of both languages. Besides, it also anticipates that, certain range of resemblances and differences might be exhibited regarding this process in both languages. The results announce that Kurdish language nominalizers are more significant and prominent than English nominalizers in regard to number and the notions that they sustain. Furthermore, the study affirms that the uttermost of the denominal nominalizers and nominal bases in English language were borrowed from other languages whereas in Kurdish most of them are native and original.</p> Garmian Omer Hama Salih Jalal Aadulla Hasan Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 7 2 111 130 10.25098/7.2.23 A Comparative Study of Conceptual Metaphors in English and Kurdish Political Media Discourse <p>Metaphor research dates back to antiquity. It has always been the focus of attention of many theories. The most distinctive of those theories is Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT). It has been widely accepted and made a breakthrough in metaphor research. It strongly challenged the belief that metaphor is related only to poetics and is mastered only by gifted language users. It posits that metaphor is a conceptual phenomenon in the first place and metaphoric language is one of its manifestations. It postulates that metaphor is a cognitive mechanism through which abstract concepts are understood in terms of more concrete concepts. During the past four decades, it has been adopted in countless cross-linguistic and discourse studies. The present study aims to survey politics-related conceptual metaphors in English and Kurdish political media discourse and draw a comparison between them. Methodologically, to elicit the data required for this study, the researchers have compiled a corpus derived from a number of English and Kurdish opinion articles published in digital media outlets. The study adopts <em>MIPVU</em>&nbsp;(Metaphor Identification Procedure VU University Amsterdam) to identify the linguistic metaphors in the corpus. What have been drawn from the results of this paper indicate that a considerable number of conceptual metaphors do occur in English and Kurdish political media discourse, the two languages show both similarities and differences in metaphorical conceptualization of politics-related concepts, and that Kurdish political media discourse incorporates a higher number of conceptual metaphors than English.</p> Naushirwan Rahim Mahmood Ibrahim Mohammad Ali Murad Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-28 2023-10-28 7 2 131 160 10.25098/7.2.24 Comparative Study between Traditional and Online Blended Tea ching on Iraqi- Kurdistan Students’ Writing Skills <p>EFL students&nbsp;have been struggling with writing as it is a challenging chore, especially for those who are still learning the fundamentals of the English&nbsp;language. Therefore, this study explores the effects of both styles of online-blended and traditional teaching. As it investigates the two styles on improving the learners’ writing abilities in one of the high Schools in Kurdistan -Sulaymaniyah region. The purpose of this study is to find out and answer two research questions namely: Does blended teaching have any significant effect on improving EFL learners’ writing ability? 2. Is there a significant difference between achievements in writing of learners taught in blended versus traditional classrooms?</p> <p>The researcher chose two groups of students of a high school, The groups were control and experimental, each one with different teaching style. This experiment took ten weeks.&nbsp; An OPT (Oxford Placement Test) was given to the students to establish the participants’ performances in English language. The findings revealed that the blended group (experimental) was more effective as improved the students’ writing skills through the instruments of pre-posttest.</p> Habib Soleimani Parwana Burhan Abdallah Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-29 2023-10-29 7 2 161 168 10.25098/7.2.25 An Investigation into The Challenges of Writing Research Project at The Departments of English in Iraqi Kurdistan Region Universities from The Students’ Perception <p>The present study aims to investigate the challenges Kurdish senior EFL students face while&nbsp;writing graduation research projects at the departments of English in Iraqi Kurdistan Region universities. The study hypothesizes that the majority of Kurdish EFL undergraduates face challenges while writing their research projects and the challenges could be related to lack of knowledge on paraphrasing, plagiarism, referencing, citation, research design, lack of practice, and poor supervision. To investigate the study hypothesis, the researcher designs a 29-item questionnaire which is distributed among 218 senior students of Department of English, College of Basic Education at four different Iraqi Kurdistan Region universities, namely University of Sulaimani, Salahaddin University-Erbil, University of Halabja, and University of Duhok during the academic year 2021-2022. The collected data is statistically analyzed using SPSS version 24 focusing on frequency, percentage, standard deviation, relevant importance, and level. The study concludes that the majority of problems the students face during writing the research projects is related to a lack of interest in research, experience and practice, good knowledge of the methodology, and positive and effective feedback. Finally, it recommends EFL instructors/supervisors to provide the students with feedback and opportunity to practice, guide them avoiding plagiarism, and teach them academic writing.&nbsp;</p> Shano Mahmood Kareem Barham Sattar Abdulrahman Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-29 2023-10-29 7 2 169 186 10.25098/7.2.26 The Discourse Function of Intonation in Central Kurdish: A Phonological Account <p>This paper looks into the Discourse Functions of Intonation in Central Kurdish ( CK henceforth).&nbsp; Although it is assumed that intonation is attested universally, its discourse function may differ cross-linguistically. Intonation can contribute to discourse directly and indirectly. The present study focuses on the former function which includes signalling turn-taking, topic-initiation and achieving coherence. Intonation can express some extra discourse functions such as showing interest, attention and agreement amongst the interlocutors. The Intonation tools used to add to the meaning of the utterances are usually by varying the pitch. Even though some studies examined intonation in Kurdish, to the best of the researchers’ knowledge, no study has exclusively examined the discourse functions of intonation in CK. Therefore, this paper embarks on investigating the discourse functions that intonation can convey in CK. It is found out that rising the pitch signals the start of a new topic, and lowering the pitch indicates the end of a topic. Another finding of the paper was that CK interlocutors lower the pitch, reduce loudness and lengthen the final element to signal end-of-turn whereas final high pitch is typically used in lists, and when the speaker is unwilling to give up the turn. The paper also discovers that CK speakers use intonation to achieve cohesion. Finally, the study acknowledges that the findings are only applicable in standard cases and they are not applied across the board. The unexpected interruption of conversation is a case where the rules that govern the discourse functions of intonation are violated.</p> Twana Saadi Hamid Tola Najm Taha Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 7 2 187 199 10.25098/7.2.27 Eighteenth Century and the Classics: An Account of Pope’s Windsor –Forest and Swift’s the Battle of the Books <p>Scholars agree that unlike the preceding Renaissance epoch and the ensuing Romantic period, both of which attempted to dissociate from a suffocating past, eighteenth century delighted in the past, considering it a patron rather than an adversary. An idea prevailed that appreciation of the classical past could assist in creating a more valuable, more rewarding future. The two big areas for consideration were the ancient Greek and Roman cultures and the writings of medieval age. Engagement with the past, however, was a two-edged sword; the past could be a prefect, wonderful model for imitation on the one hand, while on the other the decadence and the decline of the ancient civilizations could be a source of melancholy and apprehension. This paper investigates how Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope engage with the past in their respective works <em>The Battle of the Books </em>and <em>Windsor-Forest</em>,&nbsp; in which they present their accounts of the debate that was popular during their time with regards to the success and prestige of ancient and modern authors. The first part of the article attends to the criticism levelled at the ways the two writers looked at and revered the ancients, in the context of eighteenth century revival of interest in the past. Then, it is illustrated that, while Pope is optimistic about the re-establishment of another Roman age, Swift does not hide his pessimism and disappointment about bringing back his beloved Ancients to life and practice.</p> Araz Mohammed Ismail Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 7 2 200 207 10.25098/7.2.28 Working Class Conditions in Charles Dickens’s Hard Times <p>This paper explores the workers' financial, social and legal conditions in <em>Hard Times</em>. The setting (time and place) has a great significance in the novel that shows some aspects of the industrial circumstances of the early Victorian period. In the introduction, a brief biography of the novelist, Charles Dickens and then a historical background of the novel is given. The laborers and master are going to be highlighted as well as some other minor characters who have a direct relationship with them. Through the explanation of the setting, the circumstances of the workers would be understood well. The effects, nasty effects of the industrial revolution and how it changes the society. How is the daytime of the workers in the black merciless and big factories? What are the rights do they have and what do they lack? How law is oppressing these poor, hungry workers unjustly. The differences between the laborers and manufacturers in terms of working and living create a broad distance between these two classes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Adyar Saadi Khudhur Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 7 2 208 216 10.25098/7.2.29 An Empirical Study of the Application of Dynamic Assessment in EFL Students’ Academic Writing <p>This study investigates the impact of Dynamic Assessment (henceforth DA) on the academic writing skills of Kurdish EFL university students. In this study 28 second-stage students at Cihan University- Sulaimaniya participated. They were divided into two groups: a control group, which received traditional teaching and assessment method, and an experimental group, which received teaching and assessment based on the DA sandwich format. Over the course of 15 sessions, both groups underwent a pre-test, followed by the experimental group's exposure to DA and the control group’s adherence to traditional methods. A post-test was administered to both groups to evaluate any significant differences in their academic writing abilities. One-Way ANOVA analysis was conducted to examine these differences. The results revealed a substantial improvement in the academic writing performance of the experimental group exposed to DA compared to the control group. This improvement underscored the efficacy of DA in enhancing students’ writing abilities. Additionally, DA was found to alleviate students’ anxiety and promote active involvement in self-reflection, error identification, and collaborative problem-solving with a mediator. The pedagogical implications of this study highlight the advantages of a student-centered, participatory assessment approach over a teacher-centered one. They underline the need for educators to adapt their teaching methods to foster critical thinking, self-correction skills, and active student engagement, ultimately facilitating students’ performance in the academic writing.</p> <p> </p> Aras Abdalkarim Amin Al Zangana Hoshang Farooq Jawad Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 7 2 217 234 10.25098/7.2.30 The Imagery of Nature in Thomas Dylan’s “The Hunchback in the Park” and “Poem in October” <p>This paper aims to analyze two brilliant poems by the Welsh poet Dylan Thomas. In the first stage, the poet's brief historical background and literary career would be pointed out. Then, The Hunchback in the Park would be analyzed in terms of the poetic elements and literary devices. Thomas uses different elements of nature as an aesthetic description in his poetry. He loves nature and mixes social life events with the description of nature together. After that, Poem in October, which some critics believe to be his masterpiece, would be analyzed and interpreted. Finally, a brief comparison is made to show some similarities and differences between the two poems. The concentration would be on the language style that Thomas uses to better understand the initial and potential meaning of the two poems.</p> Adyar Saadi Khudhur Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 7 2 235 241 10.25098/7.2.31 Attributive Adjectives in Standard English and Central Kurdish: A Contrastive Study <p>In this paper, the phenomenon of attributive usage of adjectives is analysed in order to clarify the attributive adjectives in English and Kurdish languages. Thus, the researchers, through the present study have investigated the different uses of attributive adjectives and pointed out the similarities and differences between attributive adjectives in English and Kurdish. The present research aims at finding the problematic areas faced by those who deal with this subclass of adjectives in English and Kurdish. The positions of adjectives in both languages are different; some adjectives can be used as attributive and predicative, but while others have to be used either in an attributive or a predicative position.</p> <p>Thus, the present research tackles the syntactic and semantic subclasses of attributive adjectives. The syntactic part has been proposed to account for the function of adjectives. On the semantic features for introducing the quality of the nouns. At last, the attributive adjectives in English and Kurdish have been explained by different examples to point out their different uses, both syntactically and semantically.</p> Almas Nasradeen Abdul Rahman Karwan Juma Raheem Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-11-01 2023-11-01 7 2 242 253 10.25098/7.2.32 Consonant Lenition in Central Kurdish: A Generative Phonological Study <p>This paper looks into the phonological process of lenition in Central Kurdish and (CK henceforth). Lenition is the sound change that alters a consonant to a more sonorous one in the sonority hierarchy. It is also assumed to be a universal process in the sense that it is found in all languages. The study researched the question of what triggers lenition in languages. Moreover, different parts of speech are said to react differently in terms of lenition. However, this phonological process is not well-studied in terms of CK data. Even though CK lenition is cited in some studies, to the best of the researchers’ knowledge, none of those studies exclusively focused on lenition. Therefore, this paper tries to fill this gap in the literature of CK phonology. It also tries to examine what types of lenitions are found in CK data and what are those types that are not attested. The study has arrived to the conclusion that some types of lenitions are found in CK whereas other types are not attested: the processes of degemination, deletion, debuccalization, flapping, gliding, and voicing are present in CK. While the processes of deaspiration and spirantization are absent in CK. As far as the relation of parts of speech to lenition is concerned, it was found out that nouns are more likely to be lenited than other parts of speech. It is also found out that ease of articulation and minimizing both cognitive and physical effort trigger lenition provided that contrast is preserved between lexical items.</p> Twana Saadi Hamid Tavan Bakhtiar Bakr Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-11-05 2023-11-05 7 2 254 270 10.25098/7.2.33 Adaptation of Academic Knowledge Representation from Heterogeneous Educational Data Sources <p>Data in the modern era is diverse and always changeable. As a result of the accumulation of data from diverse systems has developed into a major issue or a hot topic in the process of adapting knowledge bases from various systems (i.e., Medical, Architectural and Educational systems, etc.). Furthermore, there are many academics who attempted to present a unified perspective of the information that is kept within any organization's relational, Extended Markup Language (XML), and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) data sources. Because of this, innovative approaches are required in order to collect, store, and analyze data from a wide variety of data sources in the most effective way that is feasible. Also, if the majority of data sources have already been included into the system that manages the data warehouse, there is still a demand for automated solutions that can generate a knowledge base for those responsible for making decisions in such fields. The primary objective of this research is to suggest a solution namely adapt academic knowledge representation from diverse educational data sources within a university and/or among other universities. This is done with the intention of sharing and making it easier for academic staff and students to gain access to knowledge that is helpful to them. The proposed system is developed using the V-model software development methodology, and research methodology used was mixed-methodology method. The proposed system was evaluated and proved to be a robust system that helped immensely with the tasks of Quality Assurance (QA) departments and also helped decision makers for universities to track the performance of their establishments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lawchak Fadhil Khalid Nawzat Sadiq Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-11-11 2023-11-11 7 2 271 291 10.25098/7.2.34 Using Discriminant Analysis for Building a Model to Predict Corporate Financial Failure <p>Companies face the risk of financial failure, which led to the emergence of the need to constantly study the phenomenon of financial failure. Whereas, models of financial failure based on financial ratios circulated in financial analysis have been developed and reached remarkable results in predicting financial failure long before its occurrence, and the study was continued on the models to predict financial failure until the Edward Altman discriminatory model was reached in 1968, which is considered the best model so far.</p> <p>In this research, a model was built to predict financial failure and compared it with Altman’s model in terms of the strength of discrimination. Hence, the model that was built showed that it has a greater discrimination strength than the Altman model when applying them on the same data. In which the percentage of correct classification reached 94.12% of the proposed model, while the percentage of correct classification was 88% for the Altman model, and that the proposed model does not include a gray area in the classification as in the Altman model, but rather classifies all vocabulary into successful and failed.</p> Obaid Mahmmood Alzawbaee Hasan Mustafa Ali Ahmed Obaid Mahmood Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2023-11-12 2023-11-12 7 2 292 306 10.25098/7.2.35 The Impact of Judicial Scrutiny in Reducing Financial and Administrative Corruption <p>The study aims to demonstrate the impact of judicial audit in detecting and combating financial and administrative corruption in institutions and within administrative units. Judicial auditing is one of the modern and advanced professions, in addition to the fact that there are limitations in judicial auditing that focus on detecting fraud in clarifying responsibilities at the company level. Redoubling the process of appointing a judicial auditor in that field, and providing universities with specialized courses to study accounting and judicial auditing in this regard.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This study was carried out by using a questionnaire tool distributed to a sample that consisted of three groups, namely, a group of auditors, certified accountants, and a group of teachers (academics) in the universities and institutes of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. (120) questionnaires were distributed and (111) valid questionnaires were retrieved from them for analysis using the ready-made statistical program, SPSS and AMOS programs. The study reached a set of results and conclusions indicating the existence of a significant relationship between the independent and fixed variables within the framework of the descriptive approach of the study and in the light of testing the study’s hypotheses. Especially the legal and administrative knowledge in the fight against financial and administrative corruption. In light of the results and conclusions, the researcher recommended a set of recommendations, the most important of which is that the financial authorities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq should integrate judicial auditing into control procedures in order to reduce and combat financial and administrative corruption, and the results were analyzed among the variables using multiple linear regression.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Blesa Nawzad KakaRash Vian Sulaiman Hama Saeed ALsalhi Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2024-01-08 2024-01-08 7 2 338 365 10.25098/7.2.36 Elements of Applying the Costing System and Its Levels in Industrial Establishments <p>The current research aims to identify the levels of application of the costing system in the establishments operating in the private sector in Dohuk Governorate. A number of industrial establishments in Dohuk Governorate were selected as a sample for the research, which consisted of (26) establishments. The descriptive (exploratory) approach was relied upon to conduct the field side and for data analysis, the SPSSV.25 statistical program was depended on. The research reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which is the lack of accounting staff in the researched establishments and the lack of interest in the cost data in a systematic and safe manner in order to help conducting their administrative affairs and achieving their goals, growth and development. Also, the problems and obstacles that prevent the presence of constituents for applying the costing system are represented in the lack of awareness of the owners and management of these facilities for the concept and nature of these constituents and their benefits that will be achieved. In the light of the results of the current research, a set of proposals were formulated, the most important of which is the need to raise awareness of the existence of the costing system elements and the application of modern computerized costing programs in a safe and systematic manner as well as to define the goal of the constituents of applying this system. Furthermore, the bodies related to industrial establishments, such as accounting bodies, must provide assistance and advice in a way that serves and enhances the chances of their presence in the researched establishments.</p> Miqdad Mohammed Ahmed ALberznji Mazin Ibrahim Ahmed ALkawashi Sherzad Hadi AliAlzebari Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2024-01-14 2024-01-14 7 2 366 386 10.25098/7.2.37 The Smart Parking Implementation as a Solution for On-Street Parking <p>Traffic congestion presents a typical issue in every metropolitan area. Causing on-street parking that refers to the practice of parking vehicles along the sides of roads or streets. It is a common method of parking in urban and suburban areas where designated parking spaces may be limited. On-street parking can provide convenience to drivers by allowing them to park closer to their destinations.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>However, it can also contribute to traffic congestion and reduce the available space for moving vehicles. Effective management and regulation of on-street parking are crucial to ensure proper traffic flow and equitable access to parking spaces for all users. The utilization of intelligent parking systems, when conceived and put into action, has the potential to decrease the wastage of time, fuel, and environmental pollution. The main objective of this study is to examine the characteristics of on-street parking, with the intention of implementing smart parking solutions. This case study focuses on Sulaimani City as an example. This study has concentrated on three congested street: Salim Street, Ibrahi Pasha Street and Orzdy Street. Accordingly, field data was gathered through the in-out method, focusing on an examination of parking characteristics and types. Data collection was conducted through manual means. . Moreover, additional date were collected for the visitors whom used the current car parking at AM, and PM periods and at peak hours for a normal day. The study result shows the fact that the highest number of cars are parked and moving in two hours underscores the significance of the demand for long-duration parking options in the area. Implementing a comprehensive smart parking system in Sulaimani city, incorporating sensor-based technology and mobile applications, along with strategically increasing off-street parking availability, will alleviate on-street congestion. This approach aims to cater to the demand for long-duration parking options, ultimately reducing traffic-related issues, optimizing parking space utilization, and contributing to a more sustainable urban environment. This observation supports the idea of introducing smart parking solutions and increasing off-street parking availability, as many drivers require parking solutions that cater to extended stays associated with various daily activities.</p> Sivan Hisham Taher Al Jarah Rebaz Jalil Abdullaa Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2024-02-24 2024-02-24 7 2 387 406 10.25098/7.2.38 Application of Virtual Reality in Architectural Education Case of Northern Cyprus <p>The use of technology in architecture education has become essential in the current digital age. VR is a technology that has the potential to completely transform not only how we communicate and have fun, but also how we learn about space, design, and architecture. The immersive, participatory nature of virtual reality offers architectural students a special chance to transform the imaginational thinking into visual images. This study tries to find the problem in applying the VR in the classes of Architecture and its slow interaction to be a main element of the Architectural classes. For the purpose of examining this problem Research have been taken in Cyprus’s use of virtual reality (VR) in architectural education. The study investigates the impact of VR on student performance and comprehension before its practical application using a quantitative research method, along with a targeted survey among architectural students at Cyprus International University. According to preliminary findings, of the 28 respondents, 74% were familiar with virtual reality, and 50% thought it had applications in architectural design. Only 23% of respondents had actual experience with VR outside of architectural contexts, though. This study examines the pedagogical intricacies of VR, going beyond simple technology integration to highlight the educators' duties in maximizing its potential and the students' expectations regarding its influence on their educational journey. This article explicitly considers the future of VR in architecture education, identifying crucial stages in the design process where VR can have the biggest influence. VR has numerous uses in many other sectors. The study gives insights into the potential roles and benefits of VR in shaping the future trajectory of architectural education in Cyprus after a thorough data analysis and contextual assessment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Barham Abdulrahim Abdalla Hardi Wahab Ahmed Samal Osman Saied Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2024-04-06 2024-04-06 7 2 407 422 10.25098/7.2.39 A Conservation Assessment of Historical Mosques <p>The urgency for meticulous preservation has escalated in light of the invaluable cultural and historical narratives embedded within ancient architectural structures. The article employs a multidisciplinary methodology that combines architectural, historical, and structural analyses in line with the guidelines set forth by the Venice Charter of ICOMOS. Historical area in Sulaimaniyah city is facing a demolishing process which can cause a problem in losing its identity. The research aims at comparing the conservation of the Grand Mosque and Khanaqa Mosque in Sulaimaniyah, Iraq, and comparing it to the neighboring country’s mosque conservation. Our findings reveal that both mosques in Sulaimaniyah face many conservation challenges ranging from material degradation to</p> <p> </p> <p>unauthorized restoration activities. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the mosques' conservation strategies were incongruous with the Venice Charter's principles, reflecting a wider discrepancy in heritage management in Iraq. We propose targeted conservation measures to address these issues, such as adopting digital documentation technologies, controlled environmental settings, and community-led conservation initiatives. This paper contributes not only to the heritage management discourse in Iraq but also offers insights into the broader discussion concerning the effective preservation of historic religious edifices.</p> <p> </p> Hardi wahab ahmed Barham Abdulrahim Abdalla Sarko Hasan Sleman Copyright (c) 2023 The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya 2024-04-06 2024-04-06 7 2 423 449 10.25098/7.2.40