The First Report on the Prevalence of Nosema spp. Disease in Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Sulaymaniyah City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.


  • Rozgar Abdullah Rasool Plant Protection Department, Beneficial Insect Section, General Directorate of Agriculture, Sulaimani, Iraq
  • Rukhosh Jawhar Rashed Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture Engineering Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq
  • Hastyar Hama Rashid Najmuldeen Medical Laboratory Analysis Department, College of Health Sciences, Cihan University Sulaimaniya, Sulaimaniya, Iraq. Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimaniya, Iraq



Honeybees, Nosema spp, Microscopic enumeration, Nosema Spore load


The microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis are a global problem in honeybee Apis mellifera L. populations and it is known to cause winter mortality. The current study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of Nosema disease and their geographical distribution in Sulaymaniyah governorate. For this purpose, between April and June, a total of 34 samples have been collected from different apiaries of city center, 18 surrounded localities, and districts of Sulaymaniyah governorate. Light microscopic examination was used to identify Nosema spp. spores in both asymptomatic and symptomatic worker bees. Nosema Spore load also measured using hematocytometer method.

Results of microscopical examination exhibited the presence of Nosema spp. spores in 91% (31/34) samples collected from geographically varied regions. Apiary from Shorsh region has been detected as a negative sample for Nosema disease, which is situated 67 Km south of the city. Moreover, microscopic enumeration of spore load was revealed that the city center and suburb regions with the maximum spore loads (Log10 7.46±0.09 and 7.10±0.11 / ml, respectively), followed by other localities and district regions ranging (Log10 6.82±0.09 - 6.00±0.05 / ml). However, the lowest spore load concentration has been detected in both Zrguez and Sangaw regions with (Log10 5.63±0.13 and 5.55±0.13 / ml, respectively).

This finding for the first time suggests that Nosema spp. is dominant in post-winter Apis mellifera worker bees and it can be considered as a real threat of reducing bee colonies and production of honey in Sulaymaniyah governorate. Further molecular studies should be achieved to determine the most prevalence species in the city and to control nosemosis in honeybee populations.



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How to Cite

Abdullah Rasool, R. ., Jawhar Rashed , R., & Hama Rashid Najmuldeen, H. . (2023). The First Report on the Prevalence of Nosema spp. Disease in Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) in Sulaymaniyah City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya, 7(2), 1-12.



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