An Attempt to Visualize the Iraqi Kuznets Environmental Curve 1990-2020: Do Energy Consumption and Globalization Matter?


  • Hatem Hatef Abdulkadhim Altaee Department of Accounting, Cihan University- Sulaimaniya, Sulaimaniya, Iraq



Environmental degradation, Iraq, globalization, energy consumption


The increase in economic activity at the global level has led to a significant rise in greenhouse gas emissions, hence a trade-off between the two existed. The argument about the economic growth and emissions an active area.  Iraq is one of the most prominent sufferings from the repercussions of climate change at the global level.  This paper examines the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and economic activity, represented by per capita income, and ultimately visualize   the possible nature of this relationship in light of the Kuznets environmental hypothesis. The period covered range from 1990 to 2020. The paper also attempts to investigate the effects of globalization and energy consumption on environmental degradation. ARDL approach is adopted as the main tool for estimation in the light of Kuznets environmental hypothesis. As for robustness check of the results obtained from the ARDL model was performed using three modern methods adopted, these methods are FMOLS, DOLS, and CCR. The main finding are: the validity of an N curve environmental curve, Globalization can assist in the reduction of environment degradation.  Electricity consumption is the main contributor to the CO2 emission. 



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How to Cite

هاتف عبد الكاظم ح. . (2023). An Attempt to Visualize the Iraqi Kuznets Environmental Curve 1990-2020: Do Energy Consumption and Globalization Matter?. The Scientific Journal of Cihan University– Sulaimaniya, 7(2), 320-337.



Articles Vol7 Issue2